Return to the Information Directory Return to Mosquito Biology page
An Abridged Bibliography of Selected Biorational Larvicides for California Mosquito Control (Version 5.1)

 

 

 

 

 

(approximately 50 pages to print out)

 

Prepared by: Wesley A. Maffei
Alameda County Mosquito Abatement District
25 June 1997



The references sited in this abridged bibliography are for Bti (Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis ), Bacillus sphaericus , Methoprene, Duplex (a combination of Bti and Methoprene), Lagenidium giganteum and Golden Bear 1111 larvicidal oil. Not all articles have been cited. Those papers included cover such topics as mode of action, range of mosquito taxa affected by these larvicides, resistance, history and development of the larvicide, some biochemistry, environmental factors affecting efficacy, methods of application, and effects to non-target organisms. Articles that dealt with genetics or situations where agencies were reporting their first trials with these materials but did not contribute significantly to an understanding of the use or mode of action of these larvicides were not included. The only larvicide for which an attempt to include all articles found, no matter what their significance, was Lagenidium giganteum. Undoubtedly, there are still many citations to be found and included for all of the larvicides covered by this bibliography.

The purpose of this bibliography is to assist those agencies using these materials in educating concerned citizens, landowners, regulatory agencies or new staff about how these larvicides work, their fate in the environment and their effects to non-target organisms.

The preparer of this document would appreciate any additional information being brought to his attention for consideration and inclusion. Contact Wesley A. Maffei at the Napa County Mosquito Abatement District (707) 553 9610.

Return to information directory

 

 

 

Index of Links:

  • Bti - General Information
  • Bti - Affects to Non-Target Organisms
  • Bti - Resistance
  • Bacillus sphaericus - General Information
  • Bacillus sphaericus - Affects to Non-Target Organisms
  • Bacillus sphaericus - Resistance
  • Methoprene or Altosid - General Information
  • Methoprene or Altosid - Affects to Non-Target Organisms
  • Methoprene or Altosid - Resistance
  • Duplex - General Information
  • Duplex - Affects to Non-Target Organisms
  • Duplex - Resistance
  • Golden Bear 1111 - General Information
  • Golden Bear 1111 - Affects to Non-Target Organisms
  • Golden Bear 1111 - Resistance
  • Lagenidium giganteum- General Information
  • Lagenidium giganteum - Affects to Non-Target Organisms
  • Lagenidium giganteum - Resistance
  • Return to information directory

     

     

    BIORATIONAL MATERIALS REFERENCE LIST

    Return to Index

    Bti - General Information


    Ali, A., R. Xue, R. Lobinske and N. Carandang. 1994. Evaluation of Granular Corncob Formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Against Mosquito Larvae Using a Semi-Field Bioassay Method. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 10(4):492-495.

    Aly, C., M.S. Mulla, Bo-Zhao Xu and W. Schnetter. 1988. Rate of Ingestion by Mosquito Larvae as a Factor in the Effectiveness of a Bacterial Stomach Toxin. J. Med. Ent. 25:191-196.

    Aly, C., M.S. Mulla, W. Schnetter and Bo-Zhao Xu. 1987. Floating Bait Formulations Increase Effectiveness of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Against Anopheles Larvae. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 3:583-588.

    Anonymous. 1979. Data Sheet on the Biological Control Agent Bacillus thuringiensis Serotype H-14.WHO/VBC/79.750 13pp.

    Armstrong, J., G. Rohrmann and G. Beaudreau. 1985. Delta Endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis . J. Bacteriol. 161(1):39-46.

    Aronson, A.I., W. Beckman and P. Dunn. 1986. Bacillus thuringiensis and Related Insect Pathogens.Microbiol. Rev. 50:1-24.

    Barjac, H. de and D.J. Sutherland (eds.). 1990. Bacterial Control of Mosquitoes and Black Flies Rutgers Univ. Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey. 349pp.

    Becker, N., S. Djakaria, A. Kaiser, O. Zulhasril and H.W. Ludwig. 1991. Efficacy of a New Tablet Formulation of an Asperogenous Strain of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis Against Larvae of Aedes aegypti . Bull. Soc. Vector Ecol. 16(1):176-182.

    Becker, N. and J. Margalit. 1993. Use of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Against Mosquitoes and Blackflies, pp145-170. In: Bacillus thuringiensis , an Environmental Biopesticide: Theory and Practice (P.F. Entwistle, J.S. Cory, M.J. Bailey and S. Higgs, eds.), John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, England.

    Becker, N. and F. Rettich. 1994. Protocol for the Introduction of New Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis Products Into the Routine Mosquito Control Program in Germany. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 10(4):527-533.

    Becker, N., M. Zgomba, M. Ludwig, D. Petric and F. Rettich. 1992. Factors Influencing the Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Treatments. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 8(3):285-289.

    Becnel, J.J., J. Garcia and M. Johnson. 1996. Effects of Three Larvicides on the Production of Aedes albopictus Based on Removal of Pupal Exuviae. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 12(3):499-502.

    Burgess, H.D. 1984. Nomenclature of Bacillus thuringiensis With Abbreviations. Mosq. News 44:136-138.

    Chilcott, C.N. 1983. Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Delta Endotoxin. Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ. of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

    Chilcott, C.N. and P.J. Wigley. 1993. Isolation and Toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis From Soil and Insect Habitats on New Zealand. J. Invert. Path. 61:244-247.

    Dale, P.E.R. and K. Hulsman. 1990. A Critical Review of Salt Marsh Management Methods for Mosquito Control. Review in Aquatic Sciences 3:281-311.

    Darwazeh, H.A., M. Zgomba and M.S. Mulla. 1990. Environmental Factors Affecting the Efficacy of Microbial Control Agents. Ann. Rep. Mosq. Cont. Res., Univ. Calif. pp. 23.

    DuPont, C. and J. Boisvert. 1986. Persistence of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis Toxic Activity in the Environment and Interaction With Natural Substrates. Water, Air and Soil Pollution. 29:425-438.

    Eldridge, B.F. and B.A. Federici. 1988. Bacterial Mosquito Larvicides: Present Status of Knowledge and Future Directions for Research. Proc. C.M.V.C.A. 56:117-127.

    Eldridge, B.F., R.K. Washino and D. Hennenberger. 1985. Control of Snow Pool Mosquitoes With Bacillus thuringiensis ser. H-14 in Mountain Environments in California and Oregon. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 1:69-75.

    Entwistle, P.F., J.S. Cory, M.J. Bailey and S. Higgs. 1993. Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis , an Environmental Biopesticide: Theory and Practice. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, England.

    Essen, Van F.W. and S.C. Hembree. 1982. Simulated Field Evaluations With Four Formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Against Mosquitoes: Residual Activity and Effect of Soil Constituents. Mosq. News. 42:66-72.

    Federici, B.A. 1995. The Future of Microbial Insecticides as Vector Control Agents. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 11(2):260-268.

    Federici, B. A. 1981. The Development of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and its Site of Action in Mosquito Larvae. Proc. C.M.V.C.A. 49:17-19.

    Frommer, R.L., S.C. Hembree, J.H. Nelson, M.P. Remington and P.H. Gibbs. 1981. The Distribution of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis in Flowing Water With No Extensive Aquatic Vegetative Growth. Mosq. News 41:331-338.

    Frommer, R.L., J.H. Nelson, M.P. Remington and P.H. Gibbs. 1981. The Effect of Extensive Aquatic Vegetative Growth on the Distribution of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis in Flowing Water. Mosq. News 41:713-724.

    Garcia, R. 1987. Strategies for the Management of Mosquito Populations With Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (H-14). pp 145-150. In Proc. 4th Symposium Arbovirus Research in Australia (1986) (T.D. St. George, B.H. Kay and J. Blok, eds.). Q.I.M.R., Brisbane.

    Garcia, R. and B. DesRochers. 1979. Toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis to Some California Mosquitoes Under Different Conditions. Mosq. News 39(3):541-544.

    Garcia, R., B. Des Rochers, W. Tozer and J. McNamara. 1983. Evaluation of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Serotype H-14 for Mosquito Control. Proc. C.M.V.C.A.
    51:25-29.

    Garcia, R., B. Des Rochers, W. Tozer and J. McNamara. 1982. Efficacy of Various Bti Formulations. Ann. Rep. Mosq. Cont. Res., Univ. Calif. pp 72-74.

    Garcia, R., B. Federici, I.M. Hall, M.S. Mulla and C.H. Schaefer. 1980. BTI - A Potent New Biological Weapon. Calif. Agric. 34(3):18-19.

    Garcia, R. and A.W. Sweeney. 1986. The Use of Microbial Pathogens for the Control of Mosquitoes. Agr. Ecosyst. Environ. 15:201-208.

    Goldberg, L.J. anf I. Ford. 1974. Mortality of Culex tarsalis Mosquito Larvae Obtained in Laboratory Studies Using Various Combinations of Bacillus thuringiensis (HD-1) With Two Growth Regulators. Proc. C.M.V.C.A. 42:169-174.

    Goldberg, L.J. and J. Margalit. 1977. A Bacterial Spore Demonstrating Rapid Larvicidal Activity Against Anopheles sergentii, Uranotaenia unguiculata, Culex univitattus, Aedes aegypti and Culex univitattus . Mosq. News. 37:355-358.

    Hall, I.M., K.Y. Arakawa, H.T. Dulmage and J.A. Correa. 1977. The Pathogenecity of Strains of Bacillus thuringiensis to Larvae of Aedes and to Culex Mosquitoes. Mosq. News. 37:246-251.

    Hare, S.G.F. and R.S. Nasci. 1986. The Effects of Sublethal Exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis on Larval Development and Adult Size in Aedes aegypti . J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 2:325-328.

    Hinkle, N.C. 1983. Factors Affecting the Efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis as a Mosquito Larvicide. Master's Thesis, Auburn Univ. 75pp.

    Hofte, H. and R.R. Whitely. 1989. Insecticidal Proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis . Microbiol. Rev. 53:242-255.

    Houston, J., B.N. Dancer and M.A. Learner. 1989. Control of Sewage Filter Flies Using Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis I. Acute Toxicity Test and Pilot Scale Trial. Water Res. 23:369-378.

    Ignoffo, C.M., C. Garcia, M.J. Kroha and T.L. Couch. 1982. High Temperature Sensitivity of Formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis . Environ. Entomol. 2:409-411.

    Jafri, R.H., M. Aslamkhan, S. Nasreen and M. Asif. 1982. Variation Among Geographic Strains of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Larvae in Their Susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 Endotoxin. Biologia 28(1):101-116.

    Jany, W. 1991. Acrobe, A New Biolarvicide for Mosquito Control. Proc. C.M.V.C.A. 59:81.

    Jones, C.J. and J.E. Lloyd. 1985. Efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis (H-14) for Larval Aedes Mosquito Control in Intermountain Meadows in Wyoming. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 1:51-55.

    Kellen, W.R. and L.L. Lewallen. 1960. Response of Mosquito Larvae to Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner. J. Insect Pathol. 2(3):305-307.

    Kramer, V. 1984. Evaluation of Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (H-14) for Mosquito Control in Rice Fields. Indian J. Med. Res. 80:642-648.

    Lacey, L.A. 1985. Bacillus thuringiensis Serotype H-14 (Bacteria), pp 132-158. In: H.C. Chapman (Ed.), Biological Control of Mosquitoes. Bull. Am. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 6:132-158.

    Lacey, L. and A. Inman. 1985. Efficacy of Granular Formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis (H-14) for the Control of Anopheles Larvae in Rice Fields. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 1(1):38-42.

    Lacey, L.A. and S. Singer. 1982. Larvicidal Activity of New Isolates of Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus thuringiensis (H-14) Against Anopheline and Culicine Mosquitoes. Mosq. News 42:537-543.

    Lacey, L.A. and A.H. Undeen. 1986. Microbial Control of Blackflies and Mosquitoes. Ann. Rev. Ent. 31:265-296.

    Lacey, L.A. and A.H. Undeen. 1984. The Effect of Formulation, Concentration and Application Time on the Efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis (H-14) Against Blackfly (Diptera: Simuliidae) Larvae Under Natural Conditions. J. Econ. Ent. 77:412-418.

    Lacey, L.A., M.J. Urbina and C. Heitzman. 1984. Sustained Release Formulations of Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus thuringiensis (H-14) for the Control ofd Container Breeding Culex quinquefasciatus Mosq. News 44:26-32.

    Lacoursiere, J.O. and G. Charpentier. 1988. Laboratory Study of the Influence of Water Temperature and PH on Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Efficacy Against Black Fly Larvae (Diptera: Simuliidae). J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 4(1):64-72.

    Laird, M., L.A. Lacey and E.W. Davidson (eds.). Safety of Microbial Insecticides. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.

    Lee, H.L., E.R. Gregorio, M.S. Khadri and P. Seleena. 1996. Ultralow Volume Application of Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis for the Control of Mosquitoes. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 12(4):651-655.

    Margalit, J. and H. Bobroglio. 1984. The Effect of Organic Materials and Solids in Water on the Persistence of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Serotype H-14. Z. Angew. Ent. 97:516-520.

    Margalit, J and D. Dean. 1985. The Story of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti). J. Amer. Mosq.Cont. Assoc. 1(1):1-7.

    Margalit, J., A. Markus and Z. Pelah. 1984. Effect of Encapsulation on the Persistence of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (H-14). Appl. Microbiol. Biotech. 19:382-383.

    Margalit, J., E. Zomer, Z. Erel and Z. Barak. 1983. Development and Application of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis H-14 as an Effective Biological Control Agent Against Mosquitoes in Israel. Biotech. 1:74-75.

    Martin, P. 1994. An Iconoclastic View of Bacillus thuringiensis Ecology. Amer. Ent. pp. 85-90.

    Martin, P. and R.S. Travers. 1989. Worldwide Abundance and Distribution of Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates. Appl. Env. Micro. 55:2437-2442.

    Morris, O.N. 1983. Protection of Bacillus thuringiensis From Inactivation by Sunlight. Can. Ent. 115:1215-1227.

    Mulla, M.S. 1991. Biological Control of Mosquitoes With Entomopathogenic Bacteria. Chinese J.Ent. Special Publ. 6:93-103.

    Mulla, M.S. and J.D. Chaney. 1992. Above Normal B.t.i. Dosages Ineffective for Producing Extended Control. Ann. Rep. Mosq. Cont. Res., Univ. Calif. pp.17-18.

    Mulla, M.S., J.D. Chaney and J. Rodchareon. 1993. Elevated Dosages of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Fail to Extend Control of Culex Larvae. Bull. Soc. Vector Ecol. 18:125-132.

    Mulla, M.S., J.D. Chaney and J. Rodcharoen. 1991. Exaggerated Dosages of B.t.i. and Long- term Control of Culex Larvae. Ann. Rep. Mosq. Cont. Res., Univ. Calif. pp. 19-21.

    Mulla, M.S. and H.A. Darwazeh. 1985. Efficacy of Formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 Against Mosquito Larvae. Bull. Soc. Vector. Ecol. 10:14-19.

    Mulla, M.S. and H.A. Darwazeh. 1984. Larvicidal Efficacy of Various Formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis Serotype H-14 Against Mosquitoes. Bull. Soc. Vector Ecol. 9(1):51-58.

    Mulla, M.S., H.A. Darwazeh, L. Ede, B. Kennedy and H.T. Dulmage. 1985. Efficacy and Field Evaluation of Bacillus thuringiensis (H-14) and B. sphaericus Against Floodwater Mosquitoes in California. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 1:310-315.

    Mulla, M.S., H.A. Darwazeh and M. Zgomba. 1990. Effect of Some Environmental Factors on the Efficacy of Bacillus sphaericus 2362 and Bacillus thuringiensis (H-14) Against Mosquitoes.Bull. Soc. Vector. Ecol. 15(2):166-175.

    Mulla, M.S. and B.A. Federici. 1982. Evaluation of Bacillus thuringiensis (H-14) Against Mosquitoes With Emphasis on Field Trials. Third International Colloquium on Invertebrate Pathology and XVth Annual Meeting of the Society of Invertebrate Pathologists (Univ. of Sussex, England), Proc. 15:466-472.

    Mulla, M.S., B.A. Federici and H.A. Darwazeh. 1982. Larvicidal Efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis serotype H-14 Against Stagnant Water Mosquitoes and Its Effect on Nontarget Organisms.Environ. Entomol. 11:788-795.

    Mulla, M.S., B.A. Federici, H.A. Darwazeh and L.Ede. 1982. Field Evaluation of the Microbial Larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 Against Floodwater Mosquitoes. Appl. Environ. Micro. 43:1288-1293.

    Mullen, G.R. and N.C. Hinkle. 1988. Method for Determining Settling Rates of Bacillus thuringiensis Serotype H-14 Formulations. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 4(2):132-137.

    Mulligan, F.S., C.H. Schaeffer and W.H. Wilder. 1980. Efficacy and Persistance of Bacillus sphaericus and B. thuringiensis H-14 Against Mosquitoes Under Field Conditions. J. Econ. Ent. 73:684-688.

    Nasci, R.S., G.B. Wright and F.S. Willis. 1994. Control of Aedes albopictus Larvae Using Time-Release Larvicide Formulations in Louisiana. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 10(1):1-6.

    Novak, R.J., D.J. Gubler and D. Underwood. 1985. Evaluation of Slow-Release Formulations of Temephos (Abate) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis for the Control of Aedes aegypti in Puerto Rico. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 1(4):449-453.

    Novak, R.J., B.A. Steinly, D.W. Webb, L. Haramis, J. Clarke, B. Farmer and R. Cieslik. 1990. Penetration Rate of Two Pesticide Carriers at a Large Used-Tire Storage Facility in Chicago, Illinois. J. Amer. Mosq. Assoc. 6(2):188-196.

    Ohana, B.J., J. Margalit and Z. Barak. 1987. Fate of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis under Simulated Field Conditions. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53:828-831.

    Perich, M.J., J.T. Rogers, L.R. Boobar and J.H. Nelson. 1988. Laboratory Evaluation of Formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Combined With Methoprene or a Monomolecular Surface Film Against Anopheles albimanus and An. stephensi . J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 4(2):198-199.

    Phillips, T.J., T. Miura and D.G. Farley. 1991. Comparative Efficacy Study of Altosid, Altosid XR and Bactimos Bti Briquets Against Culex quinquefasciatus Breeding in Catch Basins. Proc.C.M.V.C.A. 59:70-74.

    Priest, F.G. 1992. Biological Control of Mosquitoes and Other Biting Flies by Bacillus thuringiensis . J. Bacteriol. 72:357-369

    Rathburn, C.B., Jr., A.H. Boike, L.A. Sizemore and M.V. Peters. 1984. Efficacy of Several Formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Against Three Species of Mosquito Larvae in Fresh, Brackish and Polluted Water. J. Fla. Anti-Mosq. Assoc. 55:9-13.

    Ramoska, W.A., S. Watts and R.E. Rodriquez. 1982. Influence of Suspended Particles on the Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis Serotype H-14 Against Mosquitoe Larvae. J. Econ. Ent. 75:1-4.

    Ravoahangimalala, O., J.F. Charles and J. Schoeller-Raccaud. 1993. Immunological Localization of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis Toxins in Midgut Cells of Intoxicated Anopheles gambiae Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae). Res. Micro. 144:271-278.

    Sandoski, C.A., M.W. Yates, J.K. Olson and M.V. Meisch. 1985. Evaluation of Beecomist Applied Bacillus thuringiensis (H-14) Against Anopheles quadrimaculatus Larvae. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 1:316-319.

    Schaefer, C.H., F.S. Mulligan and W.H. Wilder. 1980. Operational Evaluations of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Toxin. Ann. Rep. Mosq. Cont. Res., Univ. Calif. pp. 53-54.

    Schmidt, R. 1988. Helicopter Calibration of B.t.i. Granules. N.J. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. Proc. 75:22-25.

    Shadduck, J.A. 1980. Bacillus thuringiensis serotype H-14 Maximum Challenge and Eye Irritation Safety Tests in Mammals. WHO/BVC/80.763

    Siegel, J.P., R. Cieslik, J. Thennisch, L. Clarke and R.J. Novak. 1996. Dispersal of 10-14 Mesh Corncob Granules in Stacked Tires. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 12(2):325-328.

    Silapanuntakul, A., S. Pantuwatana, A. Bhumiuratana and K. Charoensiri. 1983. The Comparative Persistence of Toxicity of Bacillus sphaericus Strain 1593 and Bacillus thuringiensis Serotype H-14 Against Mosquito Larvae in Different Kinds of Environments. J. Invert. Pathol. 42:387-392.

    Sjogren, R.D., D.P. Batzer and M.A. Juenemann. 1986. Evaluation of Methoprene, Temephos and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Against Coquilletidia perturbans Larvae in Minnesota. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 2:276-279.

    Skormand, O. and A.G. Eriksen. 1993. Field Trials of a Fizzy Tablet With Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in Forest Spring Ponds in Denmark. Bull. Soc. Vector Ecol. 18(2):160-163.

    Stark, P.M. and M.V. Meisch. 1983. Efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis Serotype H-14 Against Psorophora columbiae and Anopheles quadrimaculatus in Arkansas Ricelands. Mosq. News. 43:59-62.

    Smits, P.H. 1987. Possibilities and Constraints in the Development of New Bacillus thuringiensis Strains. Med. Facult. Landbouwwetensch., Rijksuniver. Gent. 52(2A):155-157.

    Sun, C.N., G.P. Georghiou and K. Weiss. 1980. Toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis to Mosquito Larvae Variously Resistant to Conventional Insecticides. Mosq. News. 40:614-618.

    Sutherland, D.J., S.P. Kung, H. Ehrenburg, J. Hanson and H. Rupp. 1982. Formulations of B.t.i. and Their Evaluations. N.J. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. Proc. 69:93-101.

    Thomas, W.E. and D.J. Ellar. 1983. Mechanism of Action of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Insecticidal Endotoxin. FEBS Letters 154:362-368.

    Tousignant, M.E., J.L. Boisvert and A. Chalifour. 1992. Reduction of Mortality Rates of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Aqueous Suspensions Due to Freezing and Thawing. J. Amer.Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 8(2):149-155.

    Van Essen, F.W. and S.C. Hembree. 1982. Simulated Field Studies With Four Formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Against Mosquitoes: Residual Activity and Effect of Soil Constituents. Mosq. News 42(1):66-72.

    Washino, R.K. 1982. Biological Control of Snow Mosquitoes in the Sierra Nevada. Ann. Rep. Mosq. Cont. Res., Univ. Calif. pp 75.

    Woodrow, R., J. Howard and D. White. 1995 Field Trials With Methoprene, Temephos and Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis for the Control of Larval Culiseta melanura . J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 11(4):424-427.

    Wraight, S.P., D.P. Molloy and S. Singe. 1987. Studies on the Culicine Mosquito Host Range of Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis With Notes on the Effects of Temperature and Instar on Bacterial Efficacy. J. Invert. Pathol. 49:291-302.

    Yousten, A.A., F.J. Genthner and E.F. Benfield. 1992. Fate of Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis in the Aquatic Environment. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 8(2):143-148.

    Yu, H.S., D.K. Lee, W.J. Lee and J.C. Shim. 1982. Mosquito Control Evaluation of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis in the Laboratory, Simulated Rice Paddies and Confined Field Trials in Marsh and Sewage Effluent in South Korea. Korean J. Ent. 12:69-82.

    Yu, H.S., J.C. Shim, D.K. Lee and Y.H. Yun. 1981. Mosquito Control by Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis in Simulated Rice Paddies (abstract). Korean J. Ent. 11:51-52.

    Return to Index

     

    Bti - Effects to Non-Targets.



    Ali, A. 1991. Perspectives on Management of Pestiferous Chironomidae (Diptera), An Emerging Global Problem. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 7:260-281.

    Ali, A. 1981. Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis (ABG-1608) Against Chironomids and Some Non-Target Aquatic Invertebrates. J. Invert. Pathol. 38:264-272.

    Ali, A., R.D. Baggs and J.P. Stewart. 1981. Susceptibility of Some Florida Chironomids and Mosquitoes to Various Formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis Serovar israelensis . J. Econ. Ent. 74:672-677.

    Aly, C. and M.S. Mulla. 1987. Effects of Two Microbial Insecticides on Aquatic Predators. J. Appl. Ent. 103:113-118.

    Aly, C., M.S. Mulla and B. Mauerhof. 1985. Effect of Microbial Larvicides on Aquatic Mosquito Predators. Ann. Rep. Mosq. Cont. Res., Univ. Calif. pp 116-117.

    **Anderson, R., et. al. 1996. An Assessment of Non-Target Effects of the Mosquito Larvicides, Bti and Methoprene, in Metropolitan Area Wetlands. A Report From the Scientific Peer Review Panel to the Metropolitan Mosquito Control District.

    Back, C., J. Boisvert, J.O. Lacoursiere and G. Charpentier. 1985. High-Dosage Treatment of a Quebec Stream With Bacillus thuringiensis Serovar israelensis : Efficacy Against Black Fly Larvae (Diptera: Simuliidae) and Impact on Non-Target Insects. Can. Ent. 117:1523-1534.

    Barjac, H. de, I. Larget, L. Benichou, V. Cosmao Dumanoir, G. Viviani, H. Ripouteau and S. Papion. 1980. Innocuity Tests on Mammals With Serotype H-14 of Bacillus thuringiensis. WHO Document WHO/BVC/80.761

    Brazner, J.C. and R.L. Anderson. 1986. Ingestion and Adsorbtion of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis by Gammarus lacustris in the Laboratory. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 52:1386-1390.

    **Brooke, et. al. 1988. Final Report to the Metropolitan Mosquito Control District on the Effects of Insect Control Agents, S-Methoprene and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis , to Certain Aquatic Organisms. Report to the Scientific Peer Review Panel of the Metropolitan Mosquito Control District.

    Car, M. and F.C. De Moor. 1984. The Response of Vaal River Drift and Benthos to Simulium (Diptera: Nematocera) Control Using Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (H-14). Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. 51:155-160.

    Charbonneau, C.S., R.D. Drobney and C.F. Rabeni. 1994. Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis on Nontarget Benthic Organisms in a Lentic Habitat and Factors Affecting the Efficacy of the Larvicide. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 13:267-279.

    Colbo, M.H. and A.H. Undeen. 1980. Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis on Non- Target Insects in Stream Trials for Control of Simuliidae. Mosq. News 40(3):368-371.

    Dale, P.E.R. and K. Hulsman. 1990. A Critical Review of Salt Marsh Management Methods for Mosquito Control. Review in Aquatic Sciences 3:281-311.

    Davidson, E.W. 1982. Bacteria and the Control of Arthropod Vectors of Human and Animal Disease. In : Microbial Control and Viral Pesticides (E. Kurstak, ed.), pp 289-315. New York, Marcel Decker.

    DeJong, M. and K. Rusterholz. 1989. The Indirect Effects of the Larvicides Methoprene and Bacillus thuringiensis on Wetland Bird Populations. College of St. Thomas, St. Paul, Minnesota. Report to the Scientific Peer Review Panel of the Metropolitan Mosquito Control District.

    Flum, T. 1988. Ingestion of the Bacterial Mosquito and Blackfly Larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis by Nymphs of the Stonefly Pteronarcys dorsata . M.S. Thesis. Univ. Minnesota, Duluth.

    Fortin, C., D. Lapointe and G. Charpentier. 1986. Susceptibility of Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis ) Fry to a Liquid Formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis Serovar israelensis (Teknar) Used for Black Fly Control. Can. J. Fish Aq. Sci. 43:1667-1670.

    Garcia, R., B. DesRochers and W. Tozer. 1981. Studies on Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Against Mosquito Larvae and Other Organisms. Proc. C.M.V.C.A. 49:25-29.

    Garcia, R., B. DesRochers and W. Tozer. 1980. Studies on the Toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Against Organisms Found in Association With Mosquito Larvae. Proc. C.M.V.C.A. 48:33-36.

    Garcia, R., B. DesRochers and W. Tozer. 1980. Further Studies on Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Against Mosquito Larvae and Other Organisms. Ann. Rep. Mosq. Cont. Res.,Univ. Calif. pp. 54-57.

    Garcia, R., B. DesRochers and W.G. Voigt. 1977. Studies on the Toxic Effect of the Bacterial Spore ONR60a on Non-Target Organisms. Ann. Rep. Mosq. Cont. Res., Univ. Calif. pp 29.

    Garcia, R., W. Tozer and B. DesRochers. 1981. Effects of Bti on Aquatic Organisms Other Than Mosquitoes and Blackflies. Ann. Rep. Mosq. Cont. Res, Univ. Calif. pp. 68-69.

    Gharib, A.H. and W. Hilsenhoff. 1988. Efficacy of Two Formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (H-14) Against Aedes vexans and Safety to Non-Target Macroinvertebrates. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 4(3):252-255.

    Gibbs, K.E., F.C. Brautigam, C.S. Stubbs and L.M. Zibilske. 1986. Experimental Applications of Bti for Larval Black Fly Control: Persistence and Downstream Carry, Efficacy, Impact on Non-Target Invertebrates and Fish Feeding. Maine Life Sci. Agric. Exp. Stn. Tech. Bull. 123:1-25.

    Haag, K.H. and G.R. Buckingham. 1991. Effects of Herbicides and Microbial Insecticides on the Insects of Aquatic Plants. J. Aquatic Plant Manag. 29:55-57.


    Hershey, A., L. Shannon, M. Whiteside and R. Axler. 1990. Effects of Methoprene and Bti (Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis ) on Non-Target Invertebrates: A Divided Pond Study. Final Report Submitted to the Scientific Peer Review Panel of the Metropolitan Mosquito Control District.

    Holck, A.R. and C.L. Meek. 1987. Dose-Mortality Responses of Crawfish and Mosquitoes to Selected Pesticides. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 3:407-411.

    Houston, J., B.N. Dancer and M.A. Learner. 1989. Control of Sewage Filter Flies Using Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis I. Acute Toxicity Test and Pilot Scale Trial. Water. Res. 23:369-378.

    Kallapur, V.L., M.E. Mayes, F.W. Edens, G.A. Held, W.C. Dauterman, C.Y. Kawanishi and R.M. Roe. 1992. Toxicity of Crystalline Polypeptides of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis in Japanese Quail. Pest. Biochem. Physiol. 44:208-216.

    Kimball, M.R. and J.F. Williams. 1989. The Effects on Yield of Bti Treatments at the Flowering Stage of Rice. Proc. Calif. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 57:130-132.

    Kondo, S., M. Ohba and T. Ishii. 1995. Comparative Susceptibility of Chironomid Larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae) to Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis With Special Reference to Altered Susceptibility Due to Food Difference. J. Appl. Ent. 119:123-125.

    Knepper, R.G. and E.D. Walker. 1989. Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis (H-14) on the Isopod Asellus forbesi and Spring Aedes Mosquitoes in Michigan. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 5(4):596-598.

    Lacey, L.A. and M.S. Mulla. 1990. Safety of Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus to Non-Target Organisms in the Aquatic Environment. pp 169-188. In: M. Laird, L.A. Lacey and E.W. Davidson (Eds.), Safety of Microbial Insecticides. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Fla.

    Leclair, R., G. Charpentier, F. Pronovost and S. Trottier. 1988. Progress Report to the Metropolitan Mosquito Control District on the Effects of the Insect Control Agent, Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) to Some Larval Amphibian Species. Report to the Scientific Peer Review Panel of the Metropolitan Mosquito Control District.

    Lee, B.M. and G.I. Scott. 1989. Acute Toxicity of Temephos, Fenoxycarb, Diflubenzuron, Methoprene and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis to the Mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus). Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 43:827-832.

    Marten, G.G., W. Che and E.S. Bordes. 1993. Compatibility of Cyclopoid Copepods With Mosquito Insecticides. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 9:150-154.

    Mayes, M.E., G.A. Held, C. Lau, J.C. Seely, R.M. Roe, W.C. Dauterman and C.Y. Kawanishi. 1989. Characterization of the Mammalian Toxicity of the Crystal Polypeptides of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis . Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. 13:310-322.

    Merritt, R.W., E.D. Walker, M.A. Wilzbach, K.W. Cummins and W.T. Morgan. 1989. A Broad Evaluation of Bti for Black Fly (Diptera:Simuliidae) Control in a Michigan River: Efficacy, Carry and Non-Target Effects on Invertebrates and Fish. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 5(3):397-415.

    Merritt, R.W., M.S. Wipfli and R.S. Wotton. 1991. Changes in Feeding Habits of Selected Nontarget Aquatic Insects in Response to Live and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis de Barjac Killed Black Fly Larvae (Diptera: Simuliidae). Can. Ent. 123:179-185.

    Miura, T., R.M. Takahashi and F.S. Mulligan. 1980. Effects of the Bacterial Mosquito Larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis Serotype H-14 on Selected Aquatic Organisms. Mosq. News
    40(4):619-622.

    Miura, T., R.M. Takahashi and F.S. Mulligan. 1981. Impact of the Use of Candidate Bacterial Mosquito Larvicides on Some Selected Aquatic Organisms. Proc. C.M.V.C.A. 49:45-48.

    Molloy, D.P. 1992. Impact of the Black Fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) Control Agent Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis on Chironomids (Diptera: Chironomidae) and Other Non- Target Insects: Results of Ten Field Trials. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 8(1):24-31.

    Molloy, D. and H. Jamnback. 1981. Field Evaluation of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis as a Black Fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) Biocontrol Agent and its Effect on Non-Target Stream Insects. J. Econ. Ent. 74:314-318.

    Mulla, M.S., H. Axelrod, J.D. Chaney and H.A. Darwazeh. 1984. Impact and Selectivity of Larvicides on Mosquitoes, Herbivores and Predators. Ann. Rep. Mosq. Cont. Res., Univ. Calif. pp 117-120

    Mulla, M.S., J.D. Chaney and J. Rodcharoen. 1990. Control of Nuisance Aquatic Midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) With the Microbial Larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis in a Man-made Lake in Southern California. Bull. Soc. Vector. Ecol. 15(2):176-184.

    Mulla, M.S., H.A. Darwazeh and M.J. Wargo. 1983. Impact of Microbial Control Agents on Non-Target Biota. Ann. Rep. Mosq. Cont. Res., Univ. Calif. pp 31-32.

    Mulla, M.S., B.A. Federici and H.A. Darwazeh. 1982. Larvicidal Efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis Serotype H-14 Against Stagnant Water Mosquitoes and Its Effect on Non- Target Organisms. Environ. Ent. 11:788-795.

    Mulla, M.S., B.A. Federici, H.A. Darwazeh and R.J. Brenner. 1981. Impact of Chemical and Biological Control Agents on Non-Target Biota. Ann. Rep. Mosq. Cont. Res., Univ. Calif. pp 123-125.

    Mulla, M.S., G. Majori and A.A. Arata. 1979. Impact of Biological and Chemical Mosquito Control Agents on Non-Target Biota in Aquatic Ecosystems. Residue Reviews 71:121- 173.

    Mulligan, F.S. and C.H. Schaefer. 1981. Integration of a Selective Mosquito Control Agent Bacillus thuringiensis Serotype H-14, With Natural Predator Populations in Pesticide Sensitive Habitats. Proc. C.M.V.C.A. 49:19-22.

    Niemi, G.J., R.P. Axler, P. Barnidge, J.M. Hanowski, A.E. Hershey, R.R. Regal and L.J. Shannon. 1992. Evaluation of the Potential Effects of Methoprene and Bti (Bacillus t huringiensis israelensis ) on Non-Target Organisms: A Summary of Before and After Sites in Western Wright County for 1988, 1989 and 1990. Natural Resources Research Institute and the University of Minnesota-Duluth. Report to the Scientific Peer Review Panel of the Metropolitan Mosquito Control District.

    Niemi, G.J., R.P. Axler, J.M. Hanowski, A.E. Hershey, A. Lima, R.R. Regal and L.J. Shannon. 1994. Evaluation of the Potential Effects of Methoprene and Bti (Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis ) on Wetland Birds and Invertebrates in Wright County, Minnesota, 1988-1993. Natural Resources Research Institute and the University of Minnesota - Duluth. Report to the Scientific Peer Review Panel of the Metropolitan Mosquito Control District.

    Niemi, G.J., R. Axler, J.M. Hanowski, A.E. Hershey, L.J. Shannon and M.C. Whiteside. 1990. Evaluation of the Effects of Methoprene and Bti (Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis ) on Non-Target Species and Communities in Metropolitan Mosquito Control District Wetlands. Natural Resources Research Institute and the University of Minnesota - Duluth. Report to the Scientific Peer Review Panel of the Metropolitan Mosquito Control District.

    Niemi, G.J., R.P. Axler, J.A. Hanowski, A.E. Hershey, R.R. Regal, L.J. Shannon and M.C. Whiteside. 1990. Evaluation of the Effects of Methoprene and Bti (Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis ) on Non-Target Organisms: A Summary of Before and After Sites in Western Wright County. Natural Resources Research Institute and the University of Minnesota - Duluth. Report to the Scientific Peer Review Panel of the Metropolitan Mosquito Control District.

    Niemi, G.J., J.M. Hanowski, A.E. Hershey, L.J. Shannon and M.C. Whiteside. 1990. Evaluation of the Effects of Methoprene and Bti (Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis ) on Non-Target Species and Communities: Historically Treated Sites in Eastern Wright County. Natural Resources Research Institute and the University of Minnesota - Duluth. Report to the Scientific Peer Review Panel of the Metropolitan Mosquito Control District.

    Painter, M.K., K.J. Tennessen and T.D. Richardson. 1996. Effects of Repeated Applications of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis on the Mosquito Predator Erythemis simplicollis (Odonata: Libellulidae) From Hatching to Final Instar. Environ. Ent. 25(1):184-191.

    Pistrang, L.A. and J.F. Burger. 1984. Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis on a Genetically-Defined Population of Blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) and Associated Insects in a Montane New Hampshire Stream. Can. Ent. 116:975-981.

    Purcell, B.H. 1981. Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis on Aedes taeniorhynchus and Some Non-Target Organisms in the Salt Marsh. Mosq. News 41(3):476-484.

    Reish, D.J., J.A. LeMay and S.L. Asato. 1985. The Effect of Bti (H-14) and Methoprene on Two Species of Marine Invertebrates From Southern California Estuaries. Bull. Soc. Vector. Ecol. 10:20-22.

    Rodcharoen, J., M.S. Mulla and J.D. Chaney. 1991. Microbial Larvicides for the Control of Nuisance Aquatic Midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) Inhabiting Mesocosms and Man-made Lakes in California. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 7(1):56-62.

    Siegel, J.P. and J.A. Shadduck. 1990. Clearance of Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis From Mammals. J. Econ. Ent. 83:347-355.

    Siegel, J.P., J.A. Shadduck and J. Szabo. 1987. Safety of the Entomopathogen Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis for Mammals. J. Econ. Ent. 80:717-723.


    Snarski, V.M. 1990. Interactions Between Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and Fathead Minnows, Pimephales promelas Rafinesque, Under Laboratory Conditions. Appl. Env. Micro. 56:2618-2622.

    Thomas, W.E. and D.J. Ellar. 1983. Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Crystal Delta- Endotoxin: Effects on Insect and Mammalian Cells In Vitro and In Vivo. J. Cell. Sci. 60:181-197.

    Tietze, N.S., P.G. Hester, J.C. Dukes, C.F. Hallmon, M.A. Olson and K.R. Shaffer. 1992. Acute Toxicity of Mosquitocidal Compounds to the Inland Silverside (Menidia beryllina). J. Fl. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 63:1-6.

    Tietze, N.S., P.G. Hester, C.F. Hallmon, M.A. Olson and K.R. Shaffer. 1991. Acute Toxicity of Mosquitocidal Compounds to Young Mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis . J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 7(2):290-293.

    Tietze, N.S., M.A. Olson, P.G. Hester and J.J. Moore. 1993. Tolerance of Sewage Treatment Plant Organisms to Mosquitocides. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 9(4):477-479.

    Tozer, W. and R. Garcia. 1990. Toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Serotype H- 14) Against Representatives of Three Subfamilies of North Amerrican Chironomidae and Other Taxa Associated With Mosquito or Black Fly Habitats. Proc. C.M.V.C.A.
    58:160-168.

    Vaishnav, D.D. and R.L. Anderson. 1995. Uptake and Loss of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis by Daphnia magna in Laboratory Exposures. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 14:763-766.

    Walton, W.E. and M.S. Mulla. 1992. Impacts and Fates of Microbial Pest-Control Agents in the Aquatic Environment. In: A. Rosenfield and R. Mann (eds.) Dispersal of Living Organisms Into Aquatic Ecosystems. Maryland Sea Grant College, Univ. of Maryland, College Park. 471 pp.

    Wilkinson, J.D., K.D. Biever and C.M. Ignoffo. 1975. Contact Toxicity of Some Chemical and Biological Pesticides to Several Insect Parasitoids and Predators. Entomophaga 20:113-120.

    Wipfli, M.S. and R.W. Merritt. 1994. Effects of Bacillus trhuringiensis var. israelensis on Nontarget Benthic Insects Through Direct and Indirect Exposure. J. North Amer. Benthol. Soc. 13:190-205.

    Wipfli, M.S. and R.W. Merritt. 1994. Disturbance to a Stream Food Web by a Bacterial Larvicide Specific to Black Flies: Feeding Responses of Predatory Macroinvertebrates. Freshwater Biol. 32:91-103.

    Return to Index

     

    Methoprene - General Information.


    Arias, J.R. and M.S. Mulla. 1975. Morphogenetic Aberrations Induced by a Juvenile Hormone Analogue in the Mosquito Culex tarsalis . J. Med. Ent. 12(3):309-316.

    Ariasd, J.R. and M.S. Mulla. 1975. Postemergence Effects of Two Insect Growth Regulators on the Mosquito Culex tarsalis . J. Med. Ent. 12(3):317-322.

    Axtel, R.C., D.A. Rutz and T.D. Edwards. 1980. Field Tests of Insecticides and Insect Growth Regulators for the Control of Culex quinquefasciatus in Anaerobic Animal Waste Lagoons. Mosq. News 40(1):36-42.

    Beehler, J.W. and M.S. Mulla. 1993. Effect of the Insect Growth Regulator Methoprene on the Ovipositional Behaviour of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus . J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 9(1):13-16.

    Becnel, J.J., J. Garcia and M. Johnson. 1996. Effects of Three Larvicides on the Production of Aedes albopictus Based on Removal of Pupal Exuviae. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 12(3):499-502.

    Dale, P.E.R. and K. Hulsman. 1990. A Critical Review of Salt Marsh Management Methods for Mosquito Control. Review in Aquatic Sciences 3:281-311.

    Dame, D.A., R.E. Lowe, G.J. Wichterman, A.L. Cameron, K.F. Baldwin and T. Wayne Miller. 1976. Laboratory and Field Assessment of Insect Growth Regulators for Mosquito Control. Mosq.News 36(4):462-472.

    Dunham, L.L. and W.W. Miller. 1978. Methoprene. In: Analytical Methods for Pesticides and Plant Growth Regulators. G. Zweig and J. Sherma (eds). Academic Press pp 95-109.

    Dunn, R.L., T.J. Case and R.K. Washino. 1974. Mosquito Control Studies in Northern California With Juvenile Hormone Analogues: A Progress Report. Proc. C.M.V.C.A. 42:153-156.

    Dunn, R.L. and F.E. Strong. 1973. Control of Catch-Basin Mosquitoes Using Zoecon ZR-515 Formulated in Slow Release Polymer - A Preliminary Report. Mosq. News
    33(1):110-111.

    Firstenberg, D.E. and D.J. Sutherland. 1981. Reproductive Effects in Aedes aegypti Following Sub-lethal Treatment With Methoprene or Abate. Proc. N.J. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 68th Ann. Meeting. 68:47.

    Floore, T.G., C.B. Rathburn, A.H. Boike, H.M. Rodriguez and J.S. Coughlin. 1990. Small Plot Test of Sustained-Release Altosid Pellets Against Aedes taeniorhynchus in Brackish Water. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 6(1):133-134.

    Floore, T.G., C.B. Rathburn, J.C. Dukes, B.W. Clements and A.H. Boike. 1991. Control of Aedes taeniorhynchus and Culex quinquefasciatus Emergence With Sustained Release Altosid Sand Granules and Pellets in Saltwater and Freshwater Test Plots. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 7(3):405-408.

    Gaaboub, I.A., I.A. Rawash, F.H. El-Gayar and A.F. Traboulsi. 1981. The Delayed Effects and the Basal Follicle Numbers Developed by Females of Culex pipiens L. Emerged From Treatments of Larvae With Partially Lethal Concentrations of Altosid and Dimilin. Toxicology 19:269-274.

    Gordon, R. and I.R. Burford. 1984. Effects of Methoprene, a Juvenile Hormone Analogue, on the Larval and Pupal Stages of the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti . J. Insect Physiol. 30:279-286.

    Hazelrigg, J.E. and F.W. Pelsue. 1980. A Technique for Controlling Mosquitoes Breeding in Underground Storm Drains Using Methoprene: Altosid. Proc. C.M.V.C.A. 48:96-98.

    Henrick, C.A. 1982. Juvenile Hormone Analogs: Structure-Activity Relationships. In: Insecticide Mode of Action. J.R. Coats (ed.). Academic Press. pp. 315-402.

    Hoppe, T., H. Isler and W. Vogel. 1974. Biological Activity of Juvenile Hormone Analogues Against Larvae of Culex pipiens pipiens Tested in Small-Scale Field Trials. Mosq. News 34(3):293-296

    Hsieh, M.-Y.G. and C.D. Steelman. 1974. Susceptibility of Selected Mosquito Species to Five Chemicals Which Inhibit Insect Development. Mosq. News 34(3):278-282.

    Jakob, W.L. 1972. Additional Studies With Juvenile Hormone-Type Compounds Against Mosquito Larvae. Mosq. News. 32(4):592-595.

    Kelada, N.L., I.A. Gaaboub and I. Rawash. 1981. The Effect on Reproduction and Morphometrics of Females of Culex pipiens of Treatment of Larvae with Six Insect Growth Regulators. J. Agric. Sci 96:611-618.

    Kline, D.L. 1993. Small Plot Evaluation of a Sustained-Release Sand Granule Formulation of Methoprene (San 810 I 1.3 GR) for Control of Aedes taeniorhynchus . J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 9(2):155-157.

    Knuth, M.L. 1989. Determination of the Insect Growth Regulator Methoprene in Natural Waters by Capillary Gas-Liquid Chromatography. Chemosphere 18:2275-2281.

    Kramer, V.L. and C. Beesley. 1991. Efficacy and Persistence of Sustained-Released Methoprene Pellets Against Aedes Mosquitoes in an Irrigated Pasture. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 7:646-648.

    Kramer, V.L., E.L. Carper and C. Beesley. 1993. Control of Aedes dorsalis With Sustained- Release Methoprene Pellets in a Saltwater Marsh. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 9:127-130.

    Logan, T.M., K.J. Linthicum, J.N. Wagateh, P.C. Thande, C.W. Kamau and C.R. Roberts. 1990. Pretreatment of Floodwater Aedes Habitats (Dambos) in Kenya With a Sustained Release Formulation of Methoprene. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 6(4):736-738.

    Madder, D.J. 1978. The Disappearance From, Efficacy in and Effect on Non-Target Organisms of Diflubenzuron, Methoprene and Chlorpyrifos in a Lentic Ecosystem. M.Sc. Thesis, Univ Manitoba. 139pp.

    Madder, D.J. and W.L. Lockhart. 1980. Studies on the Dissipation of Diflubenzuron and Methoprene From Shallow Prairie Pools. Can. Ent. 112:173-177.

    McCarry, M.J. 1996. Efficiency of Altosid (S-Methoprene) Liquid Larvicide Formulated on Biodac (Granular Carrier) Against Spring Aedes Species in Flooded Woodlots. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 12(3):497-498.

    Mian, L.S. and M.S. Mulla. 1982. Biological and Environmental Dynamics of Insect Growth Regulators (IGR's) as Used Against Diptera of Public Health Importance. Residue Reviews. 84:28-112.

    Miura, T., C.H. Schaefer and F.S. Mulligan. 1978. Integration of Chemical and Biological Control Agents Against Natural Populations of Culex tarsalis. Mosq. News 38:542-545.

    Mulla, M.S. 1995. The Future of Insect Growth Regulators in Vector Control. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 11(2):269-273.

    Mulla, M.S. and H.A. Darwazeh. 1988. Efficacy of New Insect Growth Regulators Against Mosquito Larvae in Wastewater Lagoons. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 4(3):322-325.

    Mulla, M.S. and H.A. Darwazeh. 1975. Activity and Longevity of Insect Growth Regulators Against Mosquitoes. J. Econ. Ent. 68:791-794.

    Mulla, M.S. and H.A. Darwazeh. 1975. Evaluation of Insect Growth Regulators Against Psorophora confinnis in Southern California. Mosq. News. 35(3):281-285.

    Mulla, M.S., H.A. Darwazeh and R.L. Norland. 1974. Insect Growth Regulators: Evaluation Procedures and Activity Against Mosquitoes. J. Econ. Ent. 67:329-332.

    Mulla, M.S., H.A. Darwazeh and E.T. Schreiber. 1989. Impact of New Insect Growth Regulators and Their Formulations on Mosquito Larval Development in Impoundment and Floodwater Habitats. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 5(1):15-20.

    Nacsi, R.S., G.B. Wright and F.S. Willis. 1994. Control of Aedes albopictus Larvae Using Time-Release Larvicide Formulations in Louisiana. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 10(1):1-6

    Norland, R.L. and M.S. Mulla. 1975. Impact of Altosid on Selected Members of an Aquatic Ecosystem. Environ. Ent. 4:145-152.

    Phillips, T.J., T. Miura and D.G. Farley. 1991. Comparative Efficacy Study of Altosid, Altosid XR and Bactimos Bti Briquets Against Culex quinquefasciatus Breeding in Catch Basins. Proc.C.M.V.C.A. 59:70-74.

    Quistad, G.B., L.E. Staiger and D.A. Schooley. 1974. Environmental Degradation of the Insect Growth Regulator Methoprene. I. Metabolism of Alfalfa and Rice. J. Agric. Food Chem. 22:582-589.

    Quistad, G.B., L.E. Staiger and D.A. Schooley. 1975. Environmental Degradation of the Insect Growth Regulator Methoprene. III. Photodecomposition. J. Agric. Food Chem. 23:299-303.

    Rathburn, C.B., E.J. Beidler, G. Dodd and A. Alfferty. 1979. Aerial Applications of a Sand Formulation of Methoprene for the Control of Salt Marsh Mosquito Larvae. Mosq. News 39(1):76-80.

    Rathburn, C.B. and A.H. Boike. 1977. The Efficacy of Preflood and Residual Applications of Two Formulations of Methoprene. Mosq. News 37(4):620-623.

    Robert, L.L. and J.K. Olson. 1989. Effects of Sublethal Dosages of Insecticides on Culex quinquefasciatus . J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 5(2):239-246.

    Rogers, A.J., C.B. Rathburn, E.J. Beidler, G. Dodd and A. Lafferty. 1976. Tests of Two Insect Growth Regulators Formulated on Sand Against Larvae of Salt-Marsh Mosquitoes. Mosq. News 36(3):273-277.

    Ross, D.H., D. Judy, B. Jacobson and R. Howell. 1994. Methoprene Concentrations in Freshwater Microcosms Treated With Sustained-Release Altosid Formulations. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 10(2):202-210.

    Sawby, R.M., M.J. Klowden and R.D. Sjogren. 1992. Sublethal Effects of Larval Methoprene Exposure on Adult Mosquito Longevity. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 8(3):290-292.

    Schaefer, C.H. and E.F. Dupras. 1973. Insect Developmental Inhibitors 4: Chemical Stability of ZR-515 in Aqueous Solutions. J. Econ. Ent. 66:923-925.

    Schaefer, C.H., T. Miura, F.S. Mulligan and E.F. Dupras. 1974. Insect Developmental Inhibitors: Formulation Research on Altosid. Proc. C.M.V.C.A. 42:140-145.

    Schaefer, C.H. and W.H. Wilder. 1972. Insect Developmental Inhibitors: A Practical Evaluation as Mosquito Control Agents. J. Econ. Ent. 65:1067-1071.

    Schaefer, C.H. and W.H. Wilder. 1973. Insect Developmental Inhibitors II. Effects on Target Mosquito Species. J. Econ. Ent. 66:913-916.

    Schaefer, C.H., W.H. Wilder, F.S. Mulligan and E.F. Dupras. 1974. Insect Development Inhibitors Effects of Altosid, TH6040 and H24108 Against Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Proc. C.M.V.C.A. 42:137-139.

    Schaefer, C.H., E.F. Dupras and W.H. Wilder. 1973. Pond Tests With ZR-515: Biological and Chemical Residues. Proc. C.M.V.C.A. 41:137-138.

    Schooley, D.A. and G.B. Quistad. 1979. Metabolism of Insect Growth Regulators in Aquatic Organisms, pp 161-176. In M.A.Q. Khan, J.H. Lech and J.J. Menn (Eds.). Pesticide and Xenobiotic Metabolism in Aquatic Organisms. Am. Chem. Soc. Symp. Ser. 99.

    Schooley, D.A., B.J. Bergot, L.L. Dunham and J.B. Siddall. 1975. Environmental Degradation of the Insect Growth Regulator Methoprene. II. Metabolism in Aquatic Microorganisms. J. Agric. Food Chem. 23:293-298.

    Schooley, D.A., K.M. Creswell, L.E. Staiger and G.B. Quistad. 1975. Environmental Degradation of the Insect Growth Regulator Methoprene. IV. Soil Metabolism. J. Agric. Food Chem. 23:369-37

    Sithiprasasna, R., E. Luepromchai and K.J. Linthicum. 1996. Effects of Sublethal Dosages of Methoprene on Anopheles dirus Species A and B. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 12(3):483-486.

    Sjogren, R.D., D.P. Batzer and M.A. Juenemann. 1986. Evaluation of Methoprene, Temephos and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Against Coquilletidia perturbans Larvae in Minnesota. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 2:276-279.

    Williams, V.G. and C.T. Palmisano. 1981. Field Tests of Methoprene (Altosid SR-10) and an Experimental Wettable Powder (ZPA-1019) Against Culex quinquefasciatus in Septic Ditches. Mosq. News 41(1):51-54.

    Woodrow, R.J., J.J. Howard and D.J. White. 1995. Field Trials With Methoprene, Temephos, and Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis for the Control of Larval Culiseta melanura . J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 11(4):424-427.

    Wright, J.E. 1976. Environmental and Toxicological Aspects of Insect Growth Regulators. Environ. Health Perspect. 14:127-132.

    Return to Index

    Methoprene - Effects on Non-Target Organisms.


    Ahl, J.S.B. and J.J. Brown. 1991. The Effect of Juvenile Hormone III, Methyl Farnesoate, and Methoprene on Na/K-ATPase Activity in Larvae of the Brine Shrimp, Artemia. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 100A:155-158.

    Ali, A. 1991. Activity of New Formulations of Methoprene Against Midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) in Experimental Ponds. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 7(4):616-620.

    **Anderson, R., et. al. 1996. An Assessment of Non-Target Effects of the Mosquito Larvicides, Bti and Methoprene, in Metropolitan Area Wetlands. A Report From the Scientific Peer Review Panel to the Metropolitan Mosquito Control District.

    Batzer, D.P. and R.D. Sjogren. 1986. Potential Effects of Altosid (Methoprene) Briquet Treatments on Eubanchipus bundyi (Anostraca: Chirocephalidae). J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 2(2):226-227.

    Barber, J.T., E.G. Ellgaard and R.J. Castagno. 1978. Operational and Scientific Notes. Crustacean Molting in the Presence of Altosid SR-10. Mosq. News 38(3):417-418.

    Bircher, L. and E. Ruber. 1988. Toxicity of Methoprene to all Stages of the Salt Marsh Copepod, Apocyclops spartinus (Cyclopoida). J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 4(4):520-523.

    Boley, R.A. 1992. Effects of Methoprene on Site Fidelity and Reproductive Success of Male Red-Winged Blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus ). M.S. Thesis, University of Minnesota. vii + 68pp + two appendices.

    Breaud, T.P., J.E. Farlow, C.D. Steelman and P.E. Schilling. 1977. Effects of the Insect Growth Regulator Methoprene on Natural Populations of Aquatic Organisms in Louisiana Intermediate Marsh Habitats. Mosq. News 37(4):704-712.

    **Brooke, et. al. 1988. Final Report to the Metropolitan Mosquito Control District on the Effects of Insect Control Agents, S-Methoprene and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis , to Certain Aquatic Organisms. Report to the Scientific Peer Review Panel of the Metropolitan Mosquito Control District.

    Case, T.J. and R.K. Washino. 1978. Effects of the Growth Regulator Methoprene on Culex tarsalis and Non-Target Organisms in California Rice Fields. Mosq. News 38(2):191-196.

    Christiansen, M.E., J.D. Costlow, Jr. and R.J. Monroe. 1977. Effects of the Juvenile Hormone Mimic ZR-515 (Altosid) on Larval Development of the Mud-Crab (Rothropanopeus harrisii ) in Various Salinities and Cyclic Temperatures. Mar. Biol. 39:269-279.

    Cooper, J.A., C.M. Potter and C.H. Welling. 1989. Mallard Duckling Growth and Behaviour in Methoprene Treated Wetlands. 1989 Final Report. Univ. Minnesota, St. Paul. Report to the Scientific Peer Review Panel of the Metropolitan Mosquito Control District.

    Costlow, J.D. 1977. The Effect of Juvenile Hormone Mimics on Development of the Mud Crab Rhithropanopeus harisii . In Physiological Responses of Marine Biota to Pollutants. (Eds.) F.J. Vernberg, A. Calabrese, F.P. thurberg and W.B. Vernberg). Academic Press, N.Y., pp 439-457.

    Creekmur, G.D., M.P. Russell and J.E. Hazelrigg. 1981. Field Evaluation of the Effects of Slow-Release Wettable Powder Formulation of Altosid on Non-Target Organisms. Proc. C.M.V.C.A. 49:95-97.

    Dale, P.E.R. and K. Hulsman. 1990. A Critical Review of Salt Marsh Management Methods for Mosquito Control. Review in Aquatic Sciences 3:281-311.

    DeJong, M. and K. Rusterholz. 1989. The Indirect Effects of the Larvicides Methoprene and Bacillus thuringiensis on Wetland Bird Populations. College of St. Thomas, St. Paul, Minnesota. Report to the Scientific Peer Review Panel of the Metropolitan Mosquito Control District.

    Dunn, R.L., T.J. Case and R.K. Washino. 1974. Mosquito Control Studies in Northern California With Juvenile Hormone Analogues: A Progress Report. Proc. C.M.V.C.A. 42:153-156.

    Ellgaard, E.G., J.T. Barber, S.C. Tiwari and A.L. Friend. 1979. An Analysis of the Swimming Behavior of Fish Exposed to the Insect Growth Regulators Methoprene and Diflubenzuron. Mosq. News 39(2):311-314.

    Fortin, C. 1988. Laboratory Study of the Impact of Slow Released Methoprene Used for the Control of Mosquito Larvae. Report to the Scientific Peer Review Panel of the Metropolitan Mosquito Control District.

    Forward, R.B., Jr. and J.D. Costlow. 1978. Sublethal Effects of Insect Growth Regulators Upon Crab Larval Behaviour. Water, Air and Soil Pollution. 9:227-238.

    Garg, R.C. and W.A. Donahue. 1989. Pharmacologic Profile of Methoprene, an Insect Growth Regulator in Cattle, Dogs and Cats. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 194:410-412.

    Gelbic, I., M. Papacek and J. Pokuta. 1994. The Effects of Methoprene S on the Aquatic Bug Ilyocoris cimicoides (Hemiptera: Naucoridae). Ecotoxicology 3:89-93.

    Gradoni, L., S. Bettini and G. Majori. 1976. Toxicity of Altosid to the Crustacean Gammarus aequicauda. Mosq. News. 36:294-297.

    Hawkins, D.R., K.T. Weston, L.F. Chasseaud and E.R. Franklin. 1977. Fate of Methoprene (Isopropyl (2E,4E)-11-Methoxy-3,7,11-Trimethyl-2,4,-Dodecadienoate) in Rats. J. Agric. Food Chem. 25:398-403.

    Hershey, A., L. Shannon, M. Whiteside and R. Axler. 1990. Effects of Methoprene and Bti (Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis ) on Non-Target Invertebrates: A Divided Pond Study. Final Report Submitted to the Scientific Peer Review Panel of the Metropolitan Mosquito Control District.

    Hester, P.G., C.B. Rathburn and A.H. Boike. 1980. Effects of Methoprene on Non-Target Organisms When Applied as a Mosquito Larvicide. Fla. Anti-Mosquito Assoc., Rep. Ann. Mtg. 51:16-20.

    Johnson, C.R. and J.E. Prine. 1976. The Effects of Sublethal Concentrations of Organophosphorous Insecticides and an Insect Growth Regulator on Temperature Tolerance in Hydrated and Dehydrated Juvenile Western Toads, Bufo boreas. Comp. Biochem Physiol. 53A:147-149.

    Johnson, W.W. and M.T. Finley. 1980. Handbook of Acute Toxicity of Chemicals to Fish and Aquatic Invertebrates. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Resource Publ. 137. Washington D.C. 98pp.

    Lee, B.M. and G.I. Scott. 1989. Acute Toxicity of Temephos, Fenoxycarb, Diflubenzuron, Methoprene and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis to the Mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 43:827-832.

    Levy, R. and T.W. Miller. 1978. Tolerance of the Planarian, Dugesia dorotocephala, to High Concentrations of Pesticides and Growth Regulators. Entomophaga 23:31-34.

    Levy, R. and T.W. Miller. 1977. Susceptibility of the Mosquito Nematode, Romanomermis culicivorax (Mermithidae), to Pesticides and Growth Regulators. Environ. Ent. 6:447-448.

    Madder, D.J. 1978. The Disappearance From, Efficacy in and Effect on Non-Target Organisms of Diflubenzuron, Methoprene and Chlorpyrifos in a Lentic Ecosystem. M.Sc. Thesis, Univ. Manitoba, 139pp.

    Madder, D.J. and W.L. Lockhart. 1978. A Preliminary Study of the Effects of Diflubenzuron and Methoprene on Rainbow Trout (Salmo gairgneri ). Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 20:66-70.

    Majori, G., S. Bettini and G. Pierdominici. 1977. Methoprene or Altosid for the Control of Aedes detritus and its Effect on Some Nontargets. Mosq. News 37:57.

    Marten, G.G., W. Che and E.S. Bordes. 1993. Compatibility of Cyclopoid Copepods With Mosquito Insecticides. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 9:150-154.

    Mather, T.N., R.W. Lake and F.J. Murphey. 1981. A Summary of Small Plot Toxicity Screening Conducted in the Micromarsh, University of Delaware. Proc. Ann. Mtg. N.J. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 68:161-170.

    McAlonan, W.G., F.J. Murphy and R.W. Lake. 1976. Effects of Two Insect Growth Regulators on Some Selected Saltmarsh Non-Target Organisms. Proc. Ann. Mtg. N.J. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 63:198.

    McKague, A.B. and R.B. Pridmore. 1978. Toxicity of Altosid and Dimilin to Juvenile Rainbow Trout and Coho Salmon. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 20:167-169.

    McKenney, C.L. and E. Matthews. 1990. Influence of an Insect Growth Regulator on the Larval Development of an Estuarine Shrimp. Environ. Pollut. 64:169-178.

    McKenney, C.L. and E. Matthews. 1988. Influence of an Insect Growth Regulator on Larval Development of a Marine Crustacean. U.S. E.P.A., Environmental Research Laboratory, Gulf Breeze, Fl. EPA/600/M-88/003. 6pp.

    Merriam, T.L. and R.C. Axtell. 1983. Relative Toxicity of Certain Pesticides to Lagenidium giganteum (Oomycetes: Lagenidiales), a Fungal Pathogen of Mosquito Larvae. Environ. Ent. 12:515-521.

    Meyer, R.P. 1994. Preliminary Evaluation of the Effect of Altosid (Methoprene) on Crustaceans Associated With Waterfowl Holding Ponds at the Kern National Wildlife Refuge. Proc. C.M.V.C.A. 62:70-73.

    Mian, L.S. and M.S. Mulla. 1982. Biological and Environmental Dynamics of Insect Growth Regulators (IGR's) as Used Against Diptera of Public Health Importance. Residue Reviews 84:27-112.

    Miura, T., C.H. Schaefer and F.S. Mulligan. 1978. Integration of Chemical and Biological Control Agents Against Natural Populations of Culex tarsalis . Mosq. News. 38:542-545.

    Miura, T. and R.M. Takahashi. 1973. Insect Developmental Inhibitors. III. Effects of Non- Target Organisms. J. Econ. Ent. 66:917-922.

    Miura, T. and R.M. Takahashi. 1974. Insect Developmental Inhibitors. Effects of Candidate Mosquito Control Agents on Non-Target Aquatic Organisms. Environ. Ent. 3:631-636.

    Mulla, M.S. and H.A. Darwazeh. 1975. Evaluation of Insect Growth Regulators Against Chironomids in Experimental Ponds. Proc. C.M.V.C.A. 43:164-168.

    Mulla, M.S., H.A. Darwazeh and H. Axelrod. 1988. Activity of Slow-Release Formulations of the IGRS Fenoxycarb and Altosid Against Mosquitoes and Non-Target Aquatic Organisms. Proc. C.M.V.C.A. 56:184-191.

    Mulla, M.S., B.A. Federici, H.A. Darwazeh and R.J. Brenner. 1981. Impact of Chemical and Biological Control Agents on Non-Target Biota. Ann. Rep. Mosq. Cont. Res., Univ. Calif. pp 123-125.

    Mulla, M.S., W.L. Kramer and D.R. Barnard. 1976. Insect Growth Regulators for the Control of Chironomid Midges in Residential-Recreational Lakes. J. Econ. Ent. 69:285-291.

    Mulla, M.S., G. Majori and A.A. Arata. 1979. Impact of Biological and Chemical Mosquito Control Agents on Non-Target Biota in Aquatic Ecosystems. Residue Rev. 71:121-173.

    Mulla, M.S., R.L. Norland, T. Ikeshoji and W.L. Kramer. 1974. Insect Growth Regulators for the Control of Aquatic Midges. J. Econ. Ent. 67:167-170.

    Nelson, F.R.S., J. Gray and F. Aikhionbare. 1994. Tolerance of the Planarian Dugesia tigrina (Tricladida: Turbellaria) to Pesticides and Insect Growth Regulators in a Small-Scale Field Study. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 10:104-105.

    Niemi, G.J., R.P. Axler, P. Barnidge, J.M. Hanowski, A.E. Hershey, R.R. Regal and L.J. Shannon. 1992. Evaluation of the Potential Effects of Methoprene and Bti (Bacillus t huringiensis israelensis ) on Non-Target Organisms: A Summary of Before and After Sites in Western Wright County for 1988, 1989 and 1990. Natural Resources Research Institute and the University of Minnesota-Duluth. Report to the Scientific Peer Review Panel of the Metropolitan Mosquito Control District.

    Niemi, G.J., R.P. Axler, J.M. Hanowski, A.E. Hershey, A. Lima, R.R. Regal and L.J. Shannon. 1994. Evaluation of the Potential Effects of Methoprene and Bti (Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis ) on Wetland Birds and Invertebrates in Wright County, Minnesota, 1988-1993. Natural Resources Research Institute and the University of Minnesota - Duluth. Report to the Scientific Peer Review Panel of the Metropolitan Mosquito Control District.

    Niemi, G.J., R. Axler, J.M. Hanowski, A.E. Hershey, L.J. Shannon and M.C. Whiteside. 1990. Evaluation of the Effects of Methoprene and Bti (Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis ) on Non-Target Species and Communities in Metropolitan Mosquito Control District Wetlands. Natural Resources Research Institute and the University of Minnesota - Duluth. Report to the Scientific Peer Review Panel of the Metropolitan Mosquito Control District.

    Niemi, G.J., R.P. Axler, J.A. Hanowski, A.E. Hershey, R.R. Regal, L.J. Shannon and M.C. Whiteside. 1990. Evaluation of the Effects of Methoprene and Bti (Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis ) on Non-Target Organisms: A Summary of Before and After Sites in Western Wright County. Natural Resources Research Institute and the University of Minnesota - Duluth. Report to the Scientific Peer Review Panel of the Metropolitan Mosquito Control District.

    Niemi, G.J., J.M. Hanowski, A.E. Hershey, L.J. Shannon and M.C. Whiteside. 1990. Evaluation of the Effects of Methoprene and Bti (Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis ) on Non-Target Species and Communities: Historically Treated Sites in Eastern Wright County. Natural Resources Research Institute and the University of Minnesota - Duluth. Report to the Scientific Peer Review Panel of the Metropolitan Mosquito Control District.

    Norland, R.L. 1973. Comparison of Juvenile Hormone Analogue Formulations Against Chironomid Midges under Semi-Field Conditions. Proc. C.M.V.C.A. 41:118.

    Norland, R.L. and M.S. Mulla. 1975. Impact of Altosid on Selected Members of an Aquatic Ecosystem. Environ. Ent. 4:145-152.

    Payen, G. and J.D. Costlow. 1977. Effects of a Juvenile Hormone Mimic on Male and Female Gametogenesis of the Mudcrab, Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Brachyura: Xanthidae). Biol. Bull. 152:199-208.

    Pelsue, F.W., G.C. McFarland and C. Beesley. 1974. Field Evaluation of Two Insect Growth Regulators Against Chironomid Midges in Water Spreading Basins. Proc. C.M.V.C.A. 42:157-163.

    Quistad, G.B., L.E. Staiger and D.A. Schooley. 1976. Environmental Degradation of the Insect Growth Regulator Methoprene. X. Chicken Metabolism. J. Agric. Food Chem. 24:644-648.

    Quistad, G.B., D.A. Schooley, L.E. Staiger, B.J. Bergot, B.H. Sleight and K.J. Macek. 1976. Environmental Degradation of the Insect Growth Regulator Methoprene. IX. Metabolism by Bluegill Sunfish. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 6:523-529.

    Quistad, G.B., L.E. Staiger and D.A. Schooley. 1974. Environmental Degradation of the Insect Growth Regulator Methoprene (Isopropyl (2E,4E)-11-Methoxy-3,7,11-Trimethyl-2,4,- Dodecadienoate). I. Metabolism by Alfalfa and Rice. J. Agric. Food Chem. 22:582-589.

    Quistad, G.B., L.E. Staiger and D.A. Schooley. 1975. Environmental Degradation of the Insect Growth Regulator Methoprene. VIII. Bovine Metabolism to Natural Products in Milk and Blood. J. Agric. Food Chem. 24:750-753.

    Quistad, G.B., L.E. Staiger, B.J. Bergot and D.A. Schooley. 1975. Environmental Degradation of the Insect Growth Regulator Methoprene. VII. Bovine Metabolism to Cholesterol and Related Natural Products. J. Agric. Food Chem. 23:743-749.

    Reish, D.J., J.A. LeMay and S.L. Asato. 1985. The Effect of Bti (H-14) and Methoprene on Two Species of Marine Invertebrates From Southern California Estuaries. Bull. Soc. Vector Ecol. 10:20-22.

    Ross, D.H., P. Cohle, P.Ritchie Blase, J.B. Bussard and K. Neufeld. 1994. Effects of the Insect Growth Regulator (S)-Methoprene on the Early Life Stages of the Fathead Minnow Pimaphales promelas in a Flow-Through Laboratory System. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 10(2):211-221.

    Schaefer, C.H., T. Miura, F.S. Mulligan and E.F. Durpas. 1974. Insect Development Inhibitors: Formulation Research on Altosid. Proc. C.M.V.C.A. 42:140-145.

    Schooley, D.A. and G.B. Quistad. 1979. Metabolism of Insect Growth Regulators in Aquatic Organisms, pp 161-176. In. M.A.Q. Khan, J.H. Lech and J.J. Menn (Eds.). Pesticide and Xenobiotic Metabolism in Aquatic Organisms. Am. Chem. Soc. Symp. Ser. 99.

    Schooley, D.A., B.J. Bergot, L.L. Dunham and J.B. Siddall. 1975. Environmental Degradation of the Insect Growth Regulator Methoprene. II. Metabolism in Aquatic Microorganisms. J. Agric. Food Chem. 23:293-298.

    Schooley, D.A., K.M. Creswell. L.E. Staiger and G.B. Quistad. 1975. Environmental Degradation of the Insect Growth Regulator Isopropyl(2E,4E)-11-Methoxy-3,7,11- Trimethyl-2,4-Dodecadienoate (Methoprene). IV. Soil Metabolism. J. Agric. Food Chem. 23:369-373.

    Steelman, C.D., J.E. Farlow, T.P. Breaud and P.E. Schilling. 1975. Effects of Growth Regulators on Psorophora columbiae and Non-Target Aquatic Insect Species in Rice Fields. Mosq. News 35(1):67-76.

    Takahashi, R.M. and T. Miura. 1975. Insect Developmental Inhibitors: Multiple Applications of Dimilin and Altosid to Gambusia affinis . Proc. C.M.V.C.A. 43:85-86.

    Tietze, N.S., P.G. Hester, J.C. Dukes, C.F. Hallmon, M.A. Olson and K.R. Shaffer. 1992. Acute Toxicity of Mosquitocidal Compounds to the Inland Silverside, Menidia beryllina . J. Fla. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 63(1):1-6.

    Tietze, N.S., P.G. Hester, C.F. Hallmon, M.A. Olson and K.R. Shaffer. 1991. Acute Toxicity of Mosquitocidal Compounds to Young Mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis . J. Amer. Mosq. Cont.Assoc. 7(2):290-293.

    Tietze, N.S., M.A. Olson, P.G. Hester and J.J. Moore. 1993. Tolerance of Sewage Treatment Microorganisms to Mosquitocides. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 9(4):477-479.

    U.S.F. & W.S. 1989. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Opinion on Selected Pesticides: Dated 14 June 1989, Revised 14 September 1989. pp. 26, 157-158, 639. U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Washington, D.C.

    Ware, G.W. 1980. Effects of Pesticides on Nontarget Organisms. Residue Reviews 76:174-201.

    Winner, R.A. and C.D. Steelman. 1978. Effects of Selected Insecticides on Romanomermis culicivorax, a Mermithid Nematode Parasite of Mosquito Larvae. Mosq. News 38:546-553.

    Wright, J.E. 1976. Environmental and Toxicological Aspects of Insect Growth Regulators. Environ. Hlth. Perspect. 14:127-132.

    Wurtsbaugh, W.A. and C.S. Apperson. 1978. Effects of Mosquito Control Insecticides on Nitrogen Fixation and Growth of Blue-Green Algae in Natural Plankton Associations. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 19:641-647.

    Yasuno, M. and K. Satake. 1990. Effects of Diflubenzuron and Methoprene on the Emergence of Insects and Their Density in an Outdoor Experimental Stream. Chemosphere 21:1321-1335.

    Return to Index

     

    Duplex - General Information.


    Bassi, D.G., A.A. Weathersbee, M.V. Meisch and A. Inman. 1989. Efficacy of Duplex and Vectobac Against Psorophora columbiae and Anopheles quadrimaculatus Larvae in Arkansas Ricefields. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 5(2):264-266.

    Goldberg, L.J. and I.Ford. 1974. Mortality of Culex tarsalis Mosquito Larvae Obtained in Laboratory Studies Using Various Combinations of Bacillus thuringiensis (HD-1) With Two Growth Regulators. Proc. C.M.V.C.A. 42:169-174.

    Perich, M.J., J.T. Rogers, L.R. Boobar and J.H. Nelson. 1988. Laboratory Evaluation of Formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Combined With Methoprene or a Monomolecular Surface Film Against Anopheles albimanus and An. stephensi . J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 4(2):198-199.

    Return to Index

    Bacillus sphaericus - General Information.


    Anonymous. 1980. WHO Data Sheet on the Biological Control Agent Bacillus sphaericus Strain 1593. WHO/VBC/80.777 16 pp.

    Aly, C., M.S. Mulla and B. Federici. 1989. Ingestion, Dissolution and Proteolysis of the Bacillus sphaericus Toxin by Mosquito Larvae. J. Invert. Path. 53:12-20.

    Aly, C., M.S. Mulla and K. Stritzke. 1985. Fate of Bacillus sphaericus Strain 2362 Toxin in the Gut of Mosquito Larvae. Ann. Rep. Mosq. Cont. Res., Univ. Calif. pp 59-62.

    Balaraman, K. 1980. Comparative Studies on the Virulence of Three Strains of Bacillus sphaericus Myer and Neide Against Mosquito Larvae. Indian J. Med. Res. 72:55-59.

    Barjac, H. de, I. Larget-Thiery, V. Cosmao Dumanoir and H. Ripouteau. 1985. Serological Classification of Bacillus sphaericus Strains on the Basis of Toxicity to Mosquito Larvae. Appl. Microbiol. Biotech. 21:85-90.

    Barjac, H. de and D.J. Sutherland (eds.). 1990. Bacterial Control of Mosquitoes and Black Flies.Rutgers Univ. Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey.

    Baumann, P., M.A. Clark, L. Baumann and A.H. Broadwell. 1991. Bacillus sphaericus as a Mosquito Pathogen: Properties of the Organism and Its Toxins. Microbiol. Rev. 55:425-436.

    Beck, M., M. Ludwig and N. Becker. 1996. Impact of Microorganisms and Water Quality on the Efficacy of Bacillus sphaericus Neide Against Culex pipiens Larvae in the Laboratory. J. Vector Ecol. 21(1):26-30.

    Becker, N., M. Ludwig, M. Beck and M. Zgomba. 1993. The Impact of Environmental Factors on the Efficacy of Bacillus sphaericus Against Culex pipiens . Bull. Soc. Vector Ecol. 18(1):61-66.

    Burke, W.F., K.D. McDonald and E.W. Davidson. 1983. Effect of U.V. Light on Spore Viability and Mosquito Larvicidal Activity of Bacillus Sphaericus 1593. Appl. Env. Micro. 46:954-956.

    Charles, J.F. and L. Nicolas. 1986. Recycling of Bacillus sphaericus 2362 in Mosquito Larvae: a Laboratory Study. Ann. Microbiol. (Inst. Pasteur) 137B:101-111.

    Dale, P.E.R. and K. Hulsman. 1990. A Critical Review of Salt Marsh Management Methods for Mosquito Control. Review in Aquatic Sciences 3:281-311.

    Darwazeh, H.A., M.Zgomba and M.S. Mulla. 1990. Environmental Factors Affecting the Efficacy of Microbial Control Agents. Ann. Rep. Mosq. Cont. Res., Univ. Calif. pp 23

    Davidson, E.W. 1988. Binding of the Bacillus sphaericus (Eubacteriales: Bacillaceae) Toxin to Midgut Cells of Mosquito Larvae: Relationship to Host Range. J. Med. Ent. 25(3):151-157.

    Davidson, E.W. 1985. Bacillus sphaericus as a Microbial Agent for Mosquito Larvae, pp 213- 226. In : M. Laird and J.M. Miles (eds), Integrated Mosquito Control Methodologies, Vol. 2 Academic Press, New York.

    Davidson, E.W. 1984. Microbiology, Pathology and Genetics of Bacillus sphaericus : Biological Aspects Which Are Important to Field Use. Mosq. News 44(2):147-152.


    Davidson, E.W. 1981. A Review of the Pathology of Bacilli Infecting Mosquitoes, Including an Ultrastructural Study of Larvae Fed Bacillus sphaericus 1593 Spores. Dev. Industr. Microbiol. 22:69-81.

    Davidson, E.W., S. Singer and J.D. Briggs. 1975. Pathogenesis of Bacillus sphaericus Strain SSII-1 Infections in Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Larvae. J. Invert. Path. 25:179-184.

    Davidson, E.W. and P. Meyers. 1981. Parasporal Inclusions in Bacillus sphaericus . FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 10:261-265.

    Davidson, E.W., A.W. Sweeney and R. Cooper. 1981. Comparative Field Trials of Bacillus sphaericus Strain 1593 and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Commercial Powder Formulations. J. Econ. Ent. 74:350-354.

    Davidson, E., M. Urbina, J. Payne, M. Mulla, H. Darwazeh, H. Dulmage and J. Correa. 1984. Fate of Bacillus sphaericus 1593 and 2362 Spores Used as Larvicides in the Aquatic Environment. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 47:125-129.

    Des Rochers, B. and R. Garcia. 1984. Evidence For Persistence and Recycling of Bacillus sphaericus . Mosq. News 44(2):160-165.

    Des Rochers, B. and R. Garcia. 1983. The Efficacy of Bacillus sphaericus in Controlling Mosquitoes Breeding in Sewer Effluent. Proc. C.M.V.C.A. 51:35-37.

    Federici, B.A. 1995. The Future of Microbial Insecticides as Vector Control Agents. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 11(2):260-268.

    Hertlein, B.C., J. Hornby, R. Levy and T.W. Miller. 1980. Shelf Life of Larvicidal Preparations Based on the Strain 1593 of Bacillus sphaericus . Wld. Hlth. Org. mimeo. doc., WHO/VBC/80.790, 3pp.

    Hertlein, B., R. Levy and T. Miller. 1979. Recycling Potential and Selective Retrieval of Bacillus sphaericus From Soil in a Mosquito Habitat. J. Invert. Pathol. 33:217-221.

    Holt, S.C., J. Gauthier and D. Tipper. 1975. Ultrastructural Studies of Sporulation in Bacillus sphaericus . J. Bacteriol. 122:1322-1338.

    Hornby, J.A., B.C. Hertlein, R. Levy and T.W. Miller. 1981. Persistent Activity of Mosquito Larvicidal Bacillus sphaericus 1593 in Fresh Water and Sewage. WHO/BVC/81.830 8 pp.

    Hornby, J.A., B.C. Hertlein and T.W. Miller. 1984. Persistent Spores and Mosquito Larvicidal Activity of Bacillus sphaericus 1593 in Well Water and Sewage. J. Georgia Ent. Soc. 19:165-167.

    Kalfon, A., I. Larget-Thiery, J.F. Charles and H de Barjac. 1983. Growth, Sporulation and Larvicidal Activity of Bacillus sphaericus . Eur. J. Appl. Micro. Biotech. 18:168-173.

    Karch, S. and J.-F. Charles. 1987. Toxicity, Viability and Ultrastructure of Bacillus sphaericus 2362 Spore/Crystal Complex Used in the Field. Ann. Microbiol. (Inst. Pasteur) 138:485-492.

    Karch, S., N. Monteny, J.L. Jullien, G. Sinegre and J. Coz. 1990. Control of Culex pipiens by Bacillus sphaericus and Role of Non-Target Arthropods In Its Recycling. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 6(1):47-54.


    Kellen, W.R., T.B. Clark, J.E. Lindegren, B.C. Ho, M.H. Rogoff and S. Singer. 1965. Bacillus sphaericus Neide as a Pathogen of Mosquitoes. J. Invert. Path. 7:442-448

    Kellen, W.R. and C.M. Meyers. 1964. Bacillus sphaericus Neide as a Pathogen of Mosquitoes. J. Invert. Path. 7:442-448.

    Kellen, W.R. and C.M. Meyers. 1964. Bacillus sphaericus Neide as a Pathogen of Mosquitoes. Proc. C.M.V.C.A. 32:37.

    Kuppusamy, M., S.L. Hoti and K. Balaraman. 1989. Residual Activity of Briquette and Alginate Formulations of Bacillus sphaericus Against Mosquito Larvae. WHO/BVC/89.977.

    Lacey, L.A. 1985. Effects of PH and Storage Temperature on Spore Viability and Larvicidal Activity of Bacillus sphaericus . Bull. Soc. Vector Ecol. 10(2):102-106.

    Lacey, L.A. 1984. Production and Formulation of Bacillus sphaericus . Mosq. News 44(2-1):153-159.

    Lacey, L.A., J. Day and C.M. Heitzmann. 1987. Longterm Effects of Bacillus sphaericus on Culex quinquefasciatus . J. Invert. Path. 49:116-123.

    Lacey, L.A., C.M. Heitzman, M.V. Meisch and J. Billodeaux. 1986. Beecomist Applied Bacillus sphaericus For Control of Riceland Mosquitoes. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 2:548-551.

    Lacey, L.A., D.A. Ross, C.M. Lacey, A. Inman and H.T. Dulmage. 1988. Experimental Formulations of Bacillus sphaericus For the Control of Anopheline and Culicine Larvae. J. Indust. Microbiol. 3:39-47.

    Lacey, L.A. and S. Singer. 1982. Larvicidal Activity of New Isolates of Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus thuringiensis (H-14) Against Anopheline and Culicine Mosquitoes. Mosq. News 42:537-543.

    Lacey, L.A., M.J. Urbina and C.M. Heitzman. 1984. Sustained Release Formulations of Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus thuringiensis (H-14) For Control of Container Breeding Culex quinquefasciatus . Mosq. News 44:26-32.

    Ludwig, M., M. Beck, M. Zgomba and N. Becker. 1994. The Impact of Water Quality on the Persistence of Bacillus sphaericus . Bull. Soc. Vector. Ecol. 19(1):43-48.

    Lysenko, O., E.W. Davidson, L.A. Lacey and A.A. Yousten. 1985. Five New Mosquito Larvicidal Strains of Bacillus sphaericus From Non-Mosquito Origins. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 1:369-371.

    Matanmi, B.A., B.A. Federici and M.S. Mulla. 1990. Fate and Persistence of Bacillus sphaericus Used as a Mosquito Larvicide in Dairy Wastewater Lagoons. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 6(3):384-389.

    Mian, L.S. and M.S. Mulla. 1983. Effect of Proteolytic Enzymes on the Activity of Bacillus sphaericus Against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus . Bull. Soc. Vector Ecol. 8:122-127.

    Mian, L.S. and M.S. Mulla. 1983. Factors Influencing Activity of the Microbial Agent Bacillus sphaericus Against Mosquito Larvae. Bull. Soc. Vector Ecol. 8:128-134.


    Mulla, M.S. 1986. Efficacy of the Microbial Agent Bacillus sphaericus Neide Against Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Southern California. Bull. Soc. Vector Ecol. 11:247-254.

    Mulla, M.S., H. Axelrod, H.A. Darwazeh and B.A. Matanmi. 1988. Efficacy and Longevity of Bacillus sphaericus 2362 Formulations for Control of Mosquito Larvae in Dairy Wastewater Lagoons. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 4:448-452.

    Mulla, M.S., H.A. Darwazeh and C. Aly. 1986. Laboratory and Field Studies on New Formulations of Two Microbial Control Agents Against Mosquitoes. Bull. Soc. Vector Ecol. 11(2):255-263.

    Mulla, M.S., H.A. Darwazeh, E.W. Davidson and H.T. Dulmage. 1984. Efficacy and Persistence of the Microbial Agent Bacillus sphaericus Against Mosquito Larvae in Organically Enriched Habitats. Mosq. News 44(2-1):166-173.

    Mulla, M.S., H.A. Darwazeh, E.W. Davidson, H.T. Dulmage and S. Singer. 1984. Larvicidal Activity and Field Efficacy of Bacillus sphaericus Strains Against Mosquito Larvae and Their Safety to Non-Target Organisms. Mosq. News. 44:336-342.

    Mulla, M.S., H.A. Darwazeh, L. Ede, B. Kennedy and H.T. Dulmage. 1985. Efficacy and Field Evaluation of Bacillus thuringiensis (H-14) and Bacillus sphaericus Against Floodwater Mosquitoes in California. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 1:310-315.

    Mulla, M.S., H.A. Darwazeh and N.S. Tietze. 1988. Efficacy of Bacillus sphaericus 2362 Formulations Against Floodwater Mosquitoes. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 4:172-174.

    Mulla, M.S., H.A. Darwazeh and A.A. Yousten. 1987. Bacillus sphaericus 2362 Formulations for Initial and Persistent Control of Stagnant Water Mosquitoes. Procv. C.M.V.C.A. 55:50-57.

    Mulla, M.S., H.A. Darwazeh and M. Zgomba. 1990. Effect of Some Environmental Factors on the Efficacy of Bacillus sphaericus 2362 and Bacillus thuringiensis (H-14) Against Mosquitoes. Bull. Soc. Vector Ecol. 15(2):166-175.

    Mulla, M.S., L.S. Mian, B.A. Federici, H.A. Darwazeh and J.D. Chaney. Efficacy of Microbial Agents Against Mosquitoes. Ann. Rep. Mosq. Cont. Res., Univ. Calif. pp 69-72.

    Mulla, M.S., N. Singh and H.A. Darwazeh. 1991. Delayed Mortality and Morphogenetic Anomalies Induced in Culex quinquefasciatus by the Microbial Agent Bacillus sphaericus. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 7(3):412-419.

    Mulligan, F.S., C.H. Schaefer and T. Miura. 1978. Laboratory and Field Evaluation of Bacillus sphaericus as a Mosquito Control Agent. J. Econ. Ent. 71:774-777.

    Mulligan, F.S., C.H. Schaefer and W.H. Wilder. 1980. Efficacy and Persistence of Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 Against Mosquitoes Under Laboratory and Field Conditions. J. Econ. Ent. 73:684-688.

    Myers, P. and A.A. Yousten. 1981. Toxic Activity of Bacillus sphaericus for Mosquito Larvae. Dev. Ind. Micro. 22:41-52.

    Nicolas, L., F. Darriet and J.M. Hougard. 1987. Efficacy of Bacillus sphaericus 2362 Against Larvae of Anopheles gambiae Under Laboratory and Field Conditions in West Africa. Med. Vet. Ent. 1:157-162.

    Nicolas, L., J. Dossou-Yovo and J. Hougard. 1987. Persistence and Recycling of Bacillus sphaericus 2362 Spores in Culex quinquefasciatus Breeding Sites in West Africa. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 25:341-345.

    Payne, J. and E.W. Davidson. 1984. Insecticidal Activity of the Crystalline Parasporal Inclusions and Other Components of the Bacillus sphaericus 1593 Spore Complex. J. Invert. Pathol. 43:383-388.

    Porter, A.G., E.W. Davidson and J. -W. Liu. 1993. Mosquitocidal Toxins of Bacilli and Their Genetic Manipulation for Effective Biological Control of Mosquitoes. Microbiol. Rev. 57:838-861.

    Priest, F.G. 1992. Biological Control of Mosquitoes and Other Biting Flies by Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus thuringiensis . J. Appl. Bacteriol. 72:357-369.

    Ramoska, W.A., J. Burgess and S. Singer. 1978. Field Application of a Bacterial Insecticide. Mosq. News. 38:57-60.

    Ramoska, W.A. and T.L. Hopkins. 1981. Effects of Mosquito Larval Feeding Behaviour on Bacillus sphaericus Efficacy. J. Invert. Pathol. 37:269-272.

    Ramoska, W.A. and C. Pacey. 1979. Food Availability and Period of Exposure as Factors of Bacillus sphaericus Efficacy on Mosquito Larvae. J. Econ. Ent. 72:523-525.

    Ramoska, W.A., S. Singer and R. Levy. 1977. Bioassay of Three Strains of Bacillus sphaericus on Field Collected Mosquito Larvae. J. Invert. Path. 30:151-154.

    Ren Gaixin, Chen Wan, Chen Jinru, Liu Binzhang and Xing Jiaqi. 1986. Biochemical and Serological Characterization of Bacillus sphaericus Strains and Their Toxicity to Mosquito Larvae. Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Nan Kaiensis. 2:89-96.

    Silapanuntakul, A., S. Pantuwatana, A. Bhumiuratana and K. Charoensiri. 1983. The Comparative Persistence of Toxicity of Bacillus sphaericus Strain 1593 and Bacillus thuringiensis serotype H-14 Against Mosquito Larvae in Different Kinds of Environments. J. Invert. Pathol. 42:387-392.

    Singer, S. 1985. Bacillus sphaericus (Bacteria). pp 123-131. In: H.C. Chapman (ed.), Biological Control of Mosquitoes. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. Bull. 6.

    Singer, S. 1980. Bacillus sphaericus For the Control of Mosquitoes. Biotech. Bioeng. 22:1335-1355.

    Singh, G. and S. Gill. 1988. An Electron Microscopic Study of the Toxic Action of Bacillus sphaericus in Culex quinquefasciatus Larvae. J. Invert. Path. 52:237-247.

    Stray, J.E., M.J. Klowden and R.E. Hurlbert. 1988. Toxicity of Bacillus sphaericus Crystal Toxin to Adult Mosquitoes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54:2320-2321.

    Sutherland, D.J., R. Dreyer, R. Schmidt, R. Keyes, L. Ferchak, H. Rupp, A Safranek, T. O'Connell, J. Hansen and W. McPherson. 1986. Field Evaluation of Bacillus sphaericus as a Larvicide in New Jersey. N.J. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. Proc. 73:16-25.

    Tinelli, R. and C. Bourgouin. 1982. Larvicidal Toxin From Bacillus sphaericus Spores. Isolation of Toxic Components. FEBS Lett. 142:155-158.

    Vankova, J. 1984. Persistence and Efficacy of Bacillus sphaericus Strain 1593 and 2362 Against Culex pipiens Larvae Under Field Conditions. Z. Ang. Entomol. 98:185-189.

    Walton, W.E. and M.S. Mulla. 1992. Impacts and Fates of Microbial Pest-Control Agents in the Aquatic Environment. In: A. Rosenfield and R. Mann (eds.) Dispersal of Living Organisms into Aquatic Ecosystems. Maryland Sea Grant College, Univ. Maryland, College Park. 471pp.

    World Health Organization. 1985. Informal Consultation on the Development of Bacillus sphaericus as a Microbial Larvicide. W.H.O./TDR/ BVC/Sphaericus/85:3. 24pp.

    Wraight, S.P., D. Molloy, H. Jamnback and P. McCoy. 1981. Effect of Temperature and Instar on Efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus Strain 1593 Against Aedes stimulans Larvae. J. Invert. Pathol. 38:78-87.

    Wraight, S.P., D.P. Molloy and S. Singe. 1987. Studies on the Culicine Mosquito Host Range of Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis With Notes on the Effects of Temperature and Instar on Bacterial Efficacy. J. Invert. Pathol. 49:291-302.

    Yap, H., Y.M. Ng, A. Foo and H.T. Tan. 1988. Bioassays of Bacillus sphaericus (Starin 1593, 2297, 2362) Against Mansonia and Other Mosquitoes of Public Health Importance in Malaysia. Malays. Appl. Biol. 17:9-13.

    Yousten, A.A. 1984. Bacillus sphaericus : Microbiological Factors Related to Its Potential as a Mosquito Larvicide. Adv. Biotech. Processes. 3:315-343.

    Yousten, A.A. and E.W. Davidson. 1982. Ultrastructural Analysis of Spores and Parasporal Crystals Formed by Bacillus sphaericus 2297. Appl. Environ. Micro. 44:1449-1455.

    Yousten, A.A., F.J. Genthner and E.F. Benfield. 1992. Fate of Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis in the Aquatic Environment. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 8(2):143-148.

    Return to Index

     

    Bacillus sphaericus - Effects to Non-Targets.


    Allen, B.T. and H.A. Wilkinson III. 1969. A Case of Meningitis and Generalized Ahwartzman Reaction Caused by Bacillus sphaericus. Johns Hopkins Med. J. 125:8-13.

    Aly, C. and M.S. Mulla. 1987. Effects of Two Microbial Insecticides on Aquatic Predators. J. Appl. Ent. 103:113-118.


    Aly, C., M.S. Mulla and B. Mauerhof. 1985. Effect of Microbial Larvicides on Aquatic Mosquito Predators. Ann. Rep. Mosq. Cont. Res., Univ. Calif. pp 116-117.

    Barjac, H. de, V. Cosmao Dumanoir, S. Hamon and I. Thiery. 1987. Safety Tests on Mice With Bacillus sphaericus serotype H5a, 5b, Strain 2362. WHO/BVC/87.948

    Cantwell, G.E. and T. Lehnert. 1979. Lack of Effect of Certain Microbial Insecticides on the Honeybee. J. Invert. Pathol. 33:381-382.

    Dale, P.E.R. and K. Hulsman. 1990. A Critical Review of Salt Marsh Management Methods for Mosquito Control. Review in Aquatic Sciences 3:281-311.

    Davidson, E.W., H.L. Morton, J.O. Moffett and S. Singer. 1977. Effect of Bacillus sphaericus Strain SSII-1 on Honey Bees, Apis mellifera. J. Invert. Path. 29:344-346.

    Genthner, F.J., D.P. Middaugh and S.S. Foss. 1992. Development of Test Methods to Determine Fate of Microbial Pest Control Agents and Their Effects of Nontarget Aquatic Animals. Proc. of the 2nd Intl. Symposium on the Biosafety Results of Field Tests of Genetically Modified Plants and Microorganisms: May 11-14, 1992, Goslar, Germany. R. Casper and J. Landsmann (eds.). Braunschweig, Germany: Biologische Bundesanstalt fur Land- und Forstwirtschaft. pp 107-114.

    Haag, K.H. and G.R. Buckingham. 1991. Effects of Herbicides and Microbial Insecticides on the Insects of Aquatic Plants. J. Aquatic Plant Manag. 29:55-57.

    Holck, A.R. and C.L. Meek. 1987. Dose-Mortality Responses of Crawfish and Mosquitoes to Selected Pesticides. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 3:407-411.

    Hudson, D.M. 1981. Nonsusceptibility of Lizards Exposed to the Entomopathogen Bacillus sphaericus . Appl. Environ. Micro. 42:638-640.

    Isaacson, P., P.H. Jacobs, A.M.R. Mackenzie and A.W. Mathews. 1976. Pseudotumor of the Lung Caused by Infection With Bacillus sphaericus. J. Clin. Path. 29:806-811.

    Karch, S., N. Monteny, J.L. Jullien, G. Sinegre and J. Coz. 1990. Control of Culex pipiens by Bacillus sphaericus and Role of Nontarget Arthropods in its Recycling. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 6:47-54.

    Key, P.B. and G.I. Scott. 1992. Acute Toxicity of the Mosquito Larvicide Bacillus sphaericus to the Grass Shrimp. Palaemonetes pugio, and Mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus. Bull. Env. Contam. Toxicol. 49:425-430.

    Miura, T., R.M. Takahashi and F.S. Mulligan. 1981. Impact of the Use of Candidate Bacterial Mosquito Larvicides on Some Selected Aquatic Organisms. Proc. C.M.V.C.A. 49:45-48.

    Mulla, M.S., H. Axelrod, J.D. Chaney and H.A. Darwazeh. 1984. Impact and Selectivity of Larvicides on Mosquitoes, Herbivores and Predators. Ann. Rep. Mosq. Cont. Res., Univ. Calif. pp 117-120

    Mulla, M.S., H.A. Darwazeh, E.W. Davidson, H.T. Dulmage and S. Singer. 1984. Larvicidal Activity And Field Efficacy of Bacillus sphaericus Strains Against Mosquito Larvae and Their Safety to Non-Target Organisms. Mosq. News 44(3):336-342.

    Mulla, M.S., H.A. Darwazeh and M.J. Wargo. 1983. Impact of Microbial Control Agents on Non-Target Biota. Ann. Rep. Mosq. Cont. Res., Univ. Calif. pp. 31-32.

    Rodcharoen, J., M.S. Mulla and J.D. Chaney. 1991. Microbial Larvicides for the Control of Nuisance Aquatic Midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) Inhabiting Mesocosms and Man-made Lakes in California. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 7(1):56-62.

    Shadduck, J.A., S. Singer and S. Lause. 1980. Lack of Mammalian Pathogenicity of Entomocidal Isolates of Bacillus sphaericus . Environ. Ent. 9:403-407.

    Siegel, J.P. and J.A. Shadduck. 1990. Clearance of Bacillus spahericus and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis From Mammals. J. Econ. Ent. 83:347-355.

    Tietze, N.S., M.A. Olson, P.G. Hester and J.J. Moore. 1993. Tolerance of Sewage Treatment Plant Microorganisms to Mosquitocides. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 9(4):477-479.

    Vandenberg, J.D. 1990. Safety of Four Entomopathogens for Caged Adult Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae). J. Econ. Ent. 83:755-759.

    Walton, W.E. and M.S. Mulla. 1992. Impacts and Fates of Microbial Pest-Control Agents in the Aquatic Environment. In: A. Rosenfield and R. Mann (eds.) Dispersal of Living Organisms Into Aquatic Ecosystems. Maryland Sea Grant College, Univ. of Maryland, College Park. 471pp.

    Walton, W.E. and M.S. Mulla. 1991. Integrated Control of Culex tarsalis Larvae Using Bacillus sphaericus and Gambusia affinis : Effects on Mosquitoes and Non-Target Organisms in Field Mesocosms. Bull. Soc. Vector Ecol. 16(1):203-221.

    Yousten, A.A., E.F. Benfield, R.P. Cambell, S.S. Foss and F.J. Genthner. 1991. Fate of Bacillus sphaericus 2362 Spores Following Ingestion by Nontarget Invertebrates. J. Invert. Path. 58:427-435.

    Return to Index

     

    Bacillus sphaericus - Resistance



    Georghiou, G.P., J.I. Malik, M. Wirth and K. Sainato. 1992. Characterization of Resistance of Culex quinquefasciatus to the Insectidal Toxins of Bacillus sphaericus (strain 2362). Ann. Rep. Mosq. Cont. Res., Univ. Calif. pp 34-35.

    Rao, D.R., T.R. Mani, R. Rajendran, A.S. Joseph, A. Gajanana and R. Reuben. 1995. Development of a High Level of Resistance to Bacillus sphaericus in a Field Population of Culex quinquefasciatus From Kochi, India. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 11(1):1-5.

    Rodcharoen, J. and M.S. Mulla. 1996. Cross-Resistance to Bacillus sphaericus Strains in Culex quinquefasciatus . J. Amer. Cont. Assoc. 12(2):247-250.

    Rodcharoen, J. and M.S. Mulla. 1994. Resistance Development in Culex quinquefasciatus to the Microbial Agent Bacillus sphaericus . J. Econ. Ent. 87:1133-1140.

    Rodcharoen, J. and M.S. Mulla. 1993. Some Aspects of Acquired Resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus to the Microbila Agent Bacillu sphaericus . Abs. 34th Ann. Ent. Conf., Univ. Calif., Riverside, Mar. 31-April1, 1993. Coop. Ext. Serv., Dept. Ent., Univ. Calif. Riverside. 34:40-41.

    Rodcharoen, J and M.S. Mulla. 1991. Resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus Larvae to Bacillus sphaericus . Ann. Rep. Mosq. Cont. Res., Univ. Calif. pp 18-19.

    Rodcharoen, J and M.S. Mulla. 1990. Mosquito Larval Resistance to the Microbial Larvicide Bacillus sphaericus . Ann. Rep. Mosq. Cont. Res., Univ. Calif. pp 24-25

    Schroeder, J.M., C. Chamberlain and E.W. Davidson. 1989. Resistance to the Bacillus sphaericus Toxin in Cultured Mosquito Cells. In Vitro 25:887-891.

    Schroeder, J.M., C. Chamberlain and E.W. Davidson. 1989. Resistance to the Bacillus sphaericus Toxin in Cultured Mosquito Cells. Soc. Invert. Path. Prog. Absts. 22nd Ann. Meeting 22:87.

    Silva-Filha, M.H., L. Regis, C. Nielsen-LeRoux and F.F. Charles. 1995. Low Level Resistance to Bacillus sphaericus in a Field-Treated Population of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). J. Econ. Ent. 88:525-530.

    Return to Index

     

    Golden Bear 1111 - General Information


    Beehler, J. and M.S. Mulla. 1996. Larvicidal Oils Modify the Oviposition Behaviour of Culex Mosquitoes. J. Vector Ecology. 21(1):60-65.

    Beehler, J. and M.S. Mulla. 1994. Larvicidal Oils and Their Effects on Culex Oviposition Behaviour. Ann. Rep. Mosq. Cont. Res., Univ. Calif. pp 57-60.

    Pelsue, Frank W., G. C. McFarland and C. Beesley. 1974. Evalulation of Golden Bear 1111 and Chevron 72-R-2569 Mosquito Larvicidal Oils. Proc. C.M.V.C.A 42:184

    Witco Corporation. 1995. M.S.D.S. GB-1111 Moquito Larvacide. Bulletin G1-95, 2 pp.

    Return to Index

     

    Golden Bear 1111 - Effects to Non-Targets



    Mulla, M. S., H. A. Darwzeh. 1981. Efficacy of Petroleum Larvididal Oils and Their Impact on Some Aquatic Nontarget Organisms. Proc. C.M.V.C.A. 49:84-87

    Tietze, Noor S., P. G. Hester, J. C. Dukes, C. F. Hallmon, M. A. Olson, and K. R. Shaffer 1992. Acute Toxicity of Mosquitocidal Compaounds to the Inland Silverside, Menidia beryllina . J. Florida Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 63:1-6

    Tietze, Noor S., P. G. Hester, C. F. Hallmon, M. A. Olson, and K. R. Shaffer. 1991. Acute Toxicity of Mosquitocidal Compounds to Young Mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis . J. A.M.C.A. 7(2):290-293

    Tietze, Noor S., M. A. Olson, P.G. Hester, and J. J. Moore. Tolerance of Sewage T reatment Plant Microorganisms to Mosquitocides. 1993. J.A.M.C.A. 9(4):477-479

    Tietze, Noor S., P. G. Hester, M. A. Olson, C. F. Hallmon, and K. R. Shaffer. 1994. Acute Toxicity of Mosquito Control Compounds to Cyprinodon variegatus and Menidia beryllina : Laboratory and Field Tests. J. Florida Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 65:37-44.

    Return to Index

     

    B.t.i. - Resistance


    Becker, N. and H. W. Ludwig. 1993. Investigations on Possible Resistance in Aedes vexans Field Populations After a 10-Year Application of Bacillus thuringiensis . J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 9:221-224.

    Georghiou, G.P., J. Baker, Z. Al-Khatip, R. Mellon, C. Murray, H. Tran, M. Vasquez, F. Pelsue and J. Hazelrigg. 1983. Insecticide Resistance in Mosquitoes: Research on New Chemicals and Techniques for Management. Ann. Rep. Mosq. Cont. Res., Univ. Calif. pp. 86-90.

    Georghiou, G.P. and M.G. Vasquez. 1982. Assessing the Potential for Development of Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Toxin (BTI) by Mosquitoes. Ann. Rep. Mosq. Cont. Res., Univ. Calif. pp. 80-81.

    Gharib, A.H. and L. Szalay-Marzso. 1986. Selection for Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Serotype H-14 in Laboratory Strains of Aedes aegypti . In : Fundamental and Applied Aspects of Invertebrate Pathology (R.A. Samson, J.M. Vlak and D. Peters, eds.), 37 Proc. 4th Intern. Colloquiium of Invert. Path. Ponsen and Looijen, Neth.

    Goldman, I.F., J. Arnold and B.C. Carlton. 1986. Selection for Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in Field and Laboratory Populations of the Mosquito Aedes aegypti . J. Invert. Path. 47:317-324.

    Lacey, L.A. 1985. Bacillus thuringiensis Serotype H-14. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. Bull. 6:132-158.

    Return to Index

     

    Methoprene - Resistance


    Brown, T.M. and a.W.A. Brown. 1980. Accumulation and Distribution of Methoprene in Resistant Culex pipiens pipiens Larvae. Ent. Exp. and Appl. 27:11-22.

    Harshman, L. 1994. Surveillance for Resistance to Methoprene. Ann. Rep. Mosq. Cont. Res., Univ. Calif. pp 63.

     

    Return to Index

     

    Lagenidium giganteum - General Information


    Axtell, R.C. and D.R. Guzman. 1987. Encapsulation of the Mosquito Fungal Pathogen Lagenidium giganteum (Oomycetes: Lagenidiales) in Calcium Alginate. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 3(3):450-459.

    Axtell, R.C., S.T. Jaronski and T.L. Merriam. 1982. Efficacy of the Mosquito Fungal Pathogen Lagenidium giganteum (Oomycetes: Lagenidiales). Proc. C.M.V.C.A. 50:41-42.

    Becnel, J.J., J. Garcia and M. Johnson. 1996. Effects of Three Larvicides on the Production of Aedes albopictus Based on Removal of Pupal Exuviae. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 12(3):499-502.

    Boswell, J.S. 1977. Zoosporogenesis in Lagenidium giganteum , a Fungal Parasite of Mosquito Larvae, in Rersponse to Nutritional Requirements. Ph.D. Thesis, Clemson Univ., 55pp.

    Brey, P.T. 1985. Observations of in vitro Gametangial Copulation and Oosporogenesis in Lagenidium giganteum . J. Invert. Pathol. 45:276-281.

    Briggs, J.D., ed. 1975. Biological Regulation of Vectors: the Saprophytic and Aerobic Bacteria and Fungi. U.S. Dept. Health, Education Welfare Publ. No. (NIH) 77-1180. 174pp.

    Brown, J.K. 1979. Lagenidium giganteum , an Aquatic Fungus, as a Potential Biological Control Agent Against the Clear Lake Gnat Chaoborus astictopus in Lake County, California. Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ. Calif. Davis, 45pp.

    Brown, J.K. and R.K. Washino. 1979. Evaluating the Fungus Lagenidium giganteum For the Biological Control of the Clear Lake Gnat, Chaoborus astictopus , in an Agricultural Pond in Lake County, California. Proc. C.M.V.C.A. 47:37.

    Brown, J.K. and R.K. Washino. 1977. Developments in Research With the Clear Lake Gnat Chaoborus astictopus in Relation to the Fungus Lagenidium giganteum . Proc. C.M.V.C.A. 45:106.

    Chapman, H.C. (ed.). 1985. Biological Control of Mosquitoes. Bull. 6, Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc., Fresno, Calif.

    Christensen, J.B., J.L. Fetter-Lasko, R.K. Washino, R.C. Husbands and E.E. Kauffman. 1977. A Preliminary Study Employing Lagenidium giganteum , a Fungus, as a Possible Biological Control Agent Against the Pasture Mosquito Aedes nigromaculis . Proc. C.M.V.C.A. 45:105.

    Couch, J.N. 1935. A New Saprophytic Species of Lagenidium , With Notes on Other Forms. Mycologia 27:376-387.

    Couch, J.N. and S.V. Romney. 1973. Sexual Reproduction in Lagenidium giganteum . Mycologia. 55:250-252.

    Couch, J.N., S.V. Romney and B. Rao. 1974. A New Fungus Which Attacks Mosquitoes and Related Diptera. Mycologia 66:374-379.

    Dale, P.E.R. and K. Hulsman. 1990. A Critical Review of Salt Marsh Management Methods for Mosquito Control. Review in Aquatic Sciences 3:281-311.

    Domnas, A.J. 1981. Biochemistry of Lagenidium giganteum Infection in Mosquito Larvae, pp. 425-449. In: E.W. Davidson (Ed.)., Pathogenesis of Invertebrate Microbial Diseases. Allanheld, Osmun, Totowa, NJ.

    Domnas, A.J., S.M. Fagan and S.T. Jaronski. 1982. Factors Influencing Zoospore Production in Liquid Cultures of Lagenidium giganteum (Oomycetes: Lagenidiales) Mycologia 74:820-825.

    Domnas, A., P.E. Geibel and T.M. McInnis. 1974. Biochemistry of Mosquito Infection: Preliminary Studies of Biochemical Change in Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Following Infection With Lagenidium giganteum . J. Invert. Pathol. 24:293-304.

    Domnas, A.J., J.P. Srebro and B.F. Hicks. 1977. Sterol Requirement for Zoospore Formation in the Mosquito-Parasitizing Fungus Lagenidium giganteum (Oomycetes: Lagenidiales). Mycologia 69:875-886.

    Federici, B.A. 1995. The Future of Microbial Insecticides As Vector Control Agents. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 11(2):260-268.

    Federici, B.A. 1981. Mosquito Control by the Fungi Culicinomyces, Lagenidium, and Coelomomyces , pp. 555-572. In : H.D. Burgess (ed.). Microbial Control of Pests and Plant Diseases 1970-1980. Academic Press, London.

    Fetter-Lasko, J.L. and R.K. Washino. 1983. In Situ Studies on Seasonality and Recycling Pattern in California of Lagenidium giganteum Couch, an Aquatic Fungal Pathogen of Mosquitoes. Environ. Ent. 12:635-640.

    Fetter-Lasko, J. and R.K. Washino. 1978. Patterns of Experimental Infection of Mosquito Larvae by Lagenidium giganteum . Proc. C.M.V.C.A. 46:90.

    Fetter- Lasko, J. and R.K. Washino. 1977. A Three Year Study of the Ecology of Lagenidium giganteum Infections of Culex tarsalis in California. Proc. C.M.V.C.A. 45:106.

    Glenn, F.E. and H.C. Chapman. 1978. A Natural Epizootic of the Aquatic Fungus Lagenidium giganteum in the Mosquito Culex territans . Mosq. News. 38(4):522-524.

    Golkar, L., R.A. LeBrun, H. Ohayon, P. Gounon, B. Papierok and P.T. Brey. 1993. Variation of Larval Susceptibility to Lagenidium giganteum in Three Mosquito Species. J. Invert. Pathol. 62:1-8.

    Guzman, D.R. and R.C. Axtell. 1987. Population Dynamics of Culex quinquefasciatus and the Fungal Pathogen Lagenidium giganteum (Oomycetes: Lagenidiales) in Stagnant Water Pools. J. Amer.. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 3(3):442-449.

    Guzman, D.R. and R.C. Axtell. 1987. Temperature and Water Quality Effects in Simulated Woodland Pools on the Infection of Culex Mosquito Larvae by Lagenidium giganteum (Oomycetes: Lagenidiales) in North Carolina. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 3(2):211-218.

    Guzman, D.R. and R.C. Axtell. 1986. Effect of Nutrient Concentration in Culturing Three Isolates of the Mosquito Fungal Pathogen, Lagenidium giganteum (Oomycetes: Lagenidiales), on Sunflower Seed Extract. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 2(2):196-200.

    Hall, R.A. and B. Papierok. 1982. Fungi as Biological Control Agents of Arthropods of Agricultural and Medical Importance. Parasitology 84:205-240.

    Jaronski, S.T. and R.C. Axtell. 1984. Simplified Production System for the Fungus Lagenidium giganteum for Operational Mosquito Control. Mosq. News. 44(3):377-381.

    Jaronski, S. and R.C. Axtell. 1983. Persistence of the Mosquito Fungal Pathogen Lagenidium giganteum (Oomycetes: Lagenidiales) After Introduction Into Natural Habitats. Mosq. News. 43(3):332-337.

    Jaronski, S. and R.C. Axtell. 1983. Effects of Temperature on Infection, Growth and Zoosporogenesis of Lagenidium giganteum , a Fungal Pathogen of Mosquito Larvae. Mosq. News. 43(1):42-45.

    Jaronski, S.T. and R.C. Axtell. 1982. Effects of Organic Water Pollution on the Infectivity of the Fungus Lagenidium giganteum (Oomycetes: Lagenidiales) for Larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae): Field and Laboratory Evaluation. J. Med. Ent. 19(3):255-262.

    Jaronski, S.T., R.C. Axtell, S.M. Fagan and A.J. Domnas. 1983. In Vitro Production of Zoospores by Lagenidium giganteum (Oomycetes: Lagenidiales) From Solid Media. J. Invert. Pathol. 41:305-309.

    Kerwin, J.L., C.A. Simmons and R.K. Washino. 1986. Oosporogenesis by Lagenidium giganteum in Liquid Culture. J. Invert. Pathol. 47:258-270.

    Kerwin, J.L. and R.K. Washino. 1988. Field Evaluation of Lagenidium giganteum (Oomycetes: Lagenidiales) and Description of a Natural Epizootic Involving a New Isolate of the Fungus. J. Med. Ent. 25(6):452-460.

    Kerwin, J.L. and R.K. Washino. 1987. Ground and Aerial Application of the Asexual Stage of Lagenidium giganteum for Control of Mosquitoes Associated With Rice Culture in the Central Valley of California. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 3(1):59-64.

    Kerwin, J.L. and R.K. Washino. 1986. Oosporogenesis by Lagenidium giganteum: Induction and Maturation are Regulated by Calcium and Calmodulin. Can. J. Microbiol. 32:663-672.

    Kerwin, J.L. and R.K. Washino. 1986. Regulation of Oosporogenesis by Lagenidium giganteum: Promotion of Sexual Reproduction by Unsaturated Fatty Acids and Sterol Availability. Can. J. Microbiol. 32:294-300.

    Kerwin, J.L. and R.K. Washino. 1986. Ground and Aerial Application of the Sexual and Asexual Stages of Lagenidium giganteum (Oomycetes: Lagenidiales) for Mosquito Control. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 2(2):182-189.

    Kerwin, J.L. and R.K. Washino. 1986. Field Evaluation of the Asexual Stage of Lagenidium giganteum . Ann. Rep. Mosq. Cont. Res., Univ. Calif. pp. 38-39.

    Kerwin J.L. and R.K. Washino. 1985. Efficacy of Lagenidium giganteum for Control of Ricefield Mosquitoes. Ann. Rep. Mosq. Cont. Res., Univ. Calif. pp. 95-97.

    Kerwin, J.L. and R.K. Washino. 1984. Cyclic Nucleotide Regulation of Oosporogenesis by Lagenidium giganteum and Related Fungi. Exp. Mycol. 8:215-224.


    Kerwin, J.L. and R.K. Washino. 1984. Efficacy of Romanomermis culicivorax and Lagenidium giganteum for Mosquito Control: Strategies for Use of Biological Control Agents in Rice Fields of the Central Valleyt of California. Proc. C.M.V.C.A. 52:86-92.

    Kerwin, J.L. and R.K. Washino. 1983. Sterol Induction of Sexual Reproduction in Lagenidium giganteum. Exp. Mycol. 7:109-115.

    Kerwin, J.L. and R.K. Washino. 1983. Field Evaluation of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis , Lagenidium giganteum , and Romanomermis culicivorax in California Rice Fields. Proc. C.M.V.C.A. 51:19-25.

    Kerwin, J.L. and R.K. Washino. 1982. Artificial Culture of the Sexual and Asexual Stages of Lagenidium giganteum . Proc. C.M.V.C.A. 50:43.

    Kramer, V.I. 1990. Laboratory Evaluation of Lagenidium giganteum (Oomycetes: Lagenidiales) in Water From Contra Costa County, California, Mosquito Sources. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 6(1):79-83.

    Lacey, L.A. and A.H. Undeen. 1986. Microbial Control of Black Flies and Mosquitoes. Ann. Rev. Ent. 31:265-296.

    Lord, J.C. and D.W. Roberts. 1996. The Effects of Culture Medium Quality and Host Passage on Zoosporogenesis, Oosporogenesis, and Infectivity of Lagenidium giganteum (Oomycetes: Lagenidiales). J. Invert. Pathol. 48:355-361.

    Lord, J.C. and D.W. Roberts. 1987. Host Age as a Determinant of Infection Rates With the Mosquito Pathogen Lagenidium giganteum (Oomycetes: Lagenidiales). J. Invert. Pathol. 50:70-71.

    Lord, J.C. and D.W. Roberts. 1985. Effects of Salinity, pH, Organic Solutes, Anaerobic Conditions, and the Presence of Other Microbes on Production and Survival of L. giganteum (Oomycetes: Lagenidiales) Zoospores. J. Invert. Pathol. 45:331-338.

    Lord, J.C. and A.H. Undeen. 1985. Solute Effects on Lagenidium giganteum Zoospore Motility and Bioassay Reproducibility. J. Invert. Path. 46:160-165.

    McCoy, C.W., R.A. Samson and D.G. Boucias. 1988. Entomogenous Fungi, pp. 151-236. In: C.M. Ignoffo and N.B. Mandava (eds.). Handbook of Natural Pesticides, Volume V. Microbial Insecticides, Part A. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL.

    McCray, E.M. 1985. Lagenidium giganteum (Fungi), pp. 87-98. In: Chapman, H.C. (ed.)., Biological Control of Mosquitoes. Bull. #6, Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc., Fresno, CA.

    McCray, E.M., C.J. Umphlett and R.W. Fay. 1973. Laboratory Studies on a New Fungal Pathogen of Mosquitoes. Mosq. News. 33(1):54-60.

    McCray, E.M., D.J. Womeldorf, R.C. Husbands and D.A. Eliason. 1973. Laboratory Observations and Field Tests With Lagenidium Against California Mosquitoes. Proc. C.M.V.C.A. 41:123-128.

    Merriam, T.L. and R.C. Axtell. 1983. Relative Toxicity of Certain Pesticides to Lagenidium giganteum (Oomycetes: Lagenidiales), a Fungal Pathogen of Mosquito Larvae. Environ. Ent. 12:515-521.

    Merriam, T.L. and R.C. Axtell. 1982. Salinity Tolerance of Two Isolates of Lagenidium giganteum (Oomycetes: Lagenidiales), a Fungal Pathogen of Mosquito Larvae. J. Med. Ent. 19(4):388-393.

    Merriam, T.L. and R.C. Axtell. 1982. Evaluation of the Entomogenous Fungi Culicinomyces clavosporus and Lagenidium giganteum for Control of the Salt Marsh Mosquito, Aedes taeniorhynchus . Mosq. News. 42(4):594-602.

    Orduz, S. and R.C. Axtell. 1991. Compatibility of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus With the Fungal Pathogen Lagenidium giganteum (Oomycetes: Lagenidiales). J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 7(2):188-193.

    Patel, K.J., L.M. Rueda and R.C. Axtell. 1990. Comparisons of Different Types and Concentrations of Alginates for Encapsulation of Lagenidium giganteum (Oomycetes: Lagenidiales), a Fungal Pathogen of Mosquito Larvae.J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 6(1):101-104.

    Patel, K.J., L.M. Rueda, R.C. Axtell and R.E. Stinner. 1991. Temperature Dependant Development of the Fungal Pathogen Lagenidium giganteum (Oomycetes: Lagenidiales) in Larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). J. Med. Ent. 28:95-100.

    Ritchie, D. 1959. The Effect of Salinity and Temperature on Marine and Other Fungi From Various Climates. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 85:367-373.

    Roberts, D.A. 1974. Fungal Infections of Mosquitoes, pp 143-193. In: A. Aubin, J-P Bourassa, S. Bellonick, M. Pellissier and E. Lacoursiere (Eds.)., Mosquito Control, Univ. Quebec Press, Montreal.

    Rueda, L.M., K.J. Patel and R.C. Axtell. 1991. Comparison of Floating and Sinking Encapsulated Formulations of the Fungus Lagenidium giganteum (Oomycetes: Lagenidiales) for Control of Anopheles Larvae. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 7(2):250-254.

    Su, X., D.R. Guzman and R.C. Axtell. 1986. Factors Affecting Storage of Mycelial Cultures of the Mosquito Fungal Pathogen Lagenidium giganteum (Oomycetes: Lagenidiales). J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 2(3):350-354.

    Sweeney, A.W., D.J. Lee, C. Panter and L.W. Burgess. 1973. A Fungal Pathogen for Mosquito Larvae With Potential as a Microbial Insecticide. Search (Sidney) 4:344-345.

    Umphlett, C.J. 1973. A Note to Identify a Certain Isolate of Lagenidium Which Kills Mosquito Larvae. Mycologia 65:970-971.

    Umphlett, C.J. and C.S. Huang. 1972. Experimental Infection of Mosquito Larvae by a Species of the Aquatic Fungus Lagenidium . J. Invert. Pathol. 20:326-331.

    Umphlett, C.J. and C.S. Huang. 1970. Lagenidium culicidum as an Agent of Biological Control of Mosquitoes. Bull. Assoc. Southeastern Biol. 17:68.

    Warner, S.A. and A.J. Domnas. 1981. Evidence for a Cycloartenol-Based Sterol Synthetic Pathway in Lagenidium spp. Exp. Mycol. 5:184-188.

    Washino, R.K. 1981. Biocontrol of Mosquitoes Associated With California Rice Fields With Special Reference to the Recycling of Lagenidium giganteum Couch and Other Microbial Agents, pp. 122-139, In: M. Laird (ed.)., Biocontrol of Medical and Veterinary Pests. Praeger Publishers, New York.

    Washino, R.K., J.L. Fetter, C.K. Fukushima and K. Gonot. 1976. The Establishment of Lagenidium giganteum , An Aquatic Fungal Parasite of Mosquitoes, Three Years After Field Introduction. Proc. C.M.V.C.A. 44:52.

    Washino, R.K. and C.K. Fukushima. 1978. Assessment of Biological Control Agents Against Mosquito Larvae in Northern California: A Progress Report. Proc. C.M.V.C.A. 46:89.

    Washino, R.K. and J.L. Kerwin. 1984. Factors Affecting Zoospore and OOspore Production and Germination by Lagenidium giganteum . Ann. Rep. Mosq. Cont. Res., Univ. Calif. pp. 72-74.

    Washino, R.K., E.M. McCray, C.J. Umphlett and J.F. Lasko. 1975. Recovery of Lagenidium giganteum , an Aquatic Fungal Parasite of Mosquitoes, Two Years After Field Introduction. Proc. N.J. Mosq. Extermination Assoc. 62:125.

    Washino, R.K. and B.B. Westerdahl. 1981. Effectiveness of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (H-14), Lagenidium giganteum , and Romanomermis culicivorax in Controlling Rice Field Mosquitoes. Ann. Rep. Mosq. Cont. Res., Univ. Calif. pp. 75-77.

    Woodring, J.L. and H.K. Kaya. 1992. Infectivity of Lagenidium giganteum to Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae) in Rice Field Waters: Laboratory Evaluation. Environ. Ent. 21:183-190.

    Work, T.M. and J.K. Olson. 1984. Laboratory Studies on the Effects of Lagenidium giganteum Couch on Psorophore columbiae (Dyar and Knab) and Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say in Texas. Proc. C.M.V.C.A. 52:93.

    Return to Index

     

    Lagenidium giganteum - Effects to Non-Targets

    Couch, J.A. and S.S. Foss. 1987. Overview of Safety of Microbial Insecticides to Estuaries and Marine Organisms. U.S. E.P.A. Environmental Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, Gulf Breeze, Fl. EPA/600/D-87/331 27pp.

    Dale, P.E.R. and K. Hulsman. 1990. A Critical Review of Salt Marsh Management Methods for Mosquito Control. Review in Aquatic Sciences 3:281-311.


    Jaronski, S.T. and R.C. Axtell. 1984. Non-Susceptibility of Chaoborus flavicans (Chaoboridae) to the Mosquito Pathogen Lagenidium giganteum (Oomycetes). Mosq. News. 44:81-82.

    Kerwin, J.L., D.A. Dritz and R.K. Washino. 1990. Confirmation of the Safety of Lagenidium giganteum (Oomycetes: Lagenidiales) to Mammals. J. Econ. Ent. 81:374-376.

    Kerwin, J.L., D.A. Dritz and R.K. Washino. 1988. Nonmammalian Safety Tests for Lagenidium giganteum (Oomycetes : Lagenidiales). J. Econ. Ent. 81:158-171.

    Kerwin, J.L., J.P. Siegel, D.A. Dritz, R.K. Washino and J.A. Shadduck. 1986. Evaluation of the Safety of Lagenidium giganteum to Non-Target Organisms. Ann. Rep. Mosq. Cont. Res., Univ. Calif. pp. 37-38.

    Nestrud, L.B. and R.L. Anderson. 1994. Aquatic Safety of Lagenidium giganteum: Effects on Freshwater Fish and Invertebrates. J. Invert. Path. 64:228-233.

    Siegel, J.P. and J.A. Shadduck. 1987. Safety of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Lagenidium giganteum (Oomycetes: Lagenidiales) to Mammals. J. Econ. Ent. 80:994-997.

    Back to top